Bitcoin Mining Calculator CoinWarz

Is mining profitable in 2020?

Do people profit by mining anymore? If not why do people mine if it is no profit? If mining is profitable then how? I am looking at cost of different asic hardware. Even at bulk prices and with free electricity the online mining reward calculators still show a loss by never recovering the price of hardware. Or in a good situation just a cut even. Is mining on bitcoin now only reserved to the few elitist who manufacture asic machines?
The claims that it is profitable because bitcoin value go up is invalid. Because at that case better off to just buy bitcoin and hodl instead of buying asic with it. Or if bought the hardware using bitcoin may never recover costs.
How is lack of asic resistance not an issue?
submitted by kryptotrayder to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

A Software Engineer's Explanation of Server Ticks/FPS, the Message Pump, and Server Meshing

Since people liked my last post about the SQ42 report, I thought I would do another about the recent comment about server ticks https://robertsspaceindustries.com/spectrum/community/SC/forum/50259/thread/end-goal-server-tick-rate/2872293
To understand how this works, you must first understand the Message Pump. This is basically the heart beat of an application. It is a loop from which there is no escape, so long as the application runs. All applications have an "entry point" that initially gets called. If you've ever taken Computer Science 101, it would be your "main" function. For a console application, you enter main, it does some things, and then when it leaves main, the application closes. In an application with a graphical user interface, that loop has to regularly call a Render or Draw function that draws the UI. This happens on the Render Thread. In a regular client application your Message Pump will look something like this:
while(IsApplicationRunning) { //loop while application is meant to run HandleKeyboardInputs(); //check to see if any keyboard events have occured HandleMouseInputs(); //check to see if any mouse events have occurred, hittest children HandleSizeChanges(); //check if the window has resized, resize children to fit Render(); //recursively render all child controls } 
Each function call within the loop will call entire hierarchies of functionality. This same basic principal applies to a server as well. I am using my imagination, as I have never audited the Star Citizen codebase, but its message pump would look something like
while(IsServerOnline) { //loop while server is meant to run HandleOrbitalRotation(); //update position of all planets around the sun HandleNPCRoutines(); //update position/animations of all NPCs SynchronizePlayerLocations(); //receive player location packets and update //internal locations CheckForIssues(); //check all object positions and ensure no conflicts UpdatePlayerLocations(); //send new location data of all objects to connected //players } 
This is only the most basic sort of functionality, that doesn't factor in things like Server Object Container Streaming or Meshing or object persistence.
Each iteration of the Message Pump is a frame. These frames are calculated by having a Stopwatch and taking averages of how long it takes each frame to complete across a defined sample size. If you have a target frame rate, like 30fps for instance, subroutines can be prioritized to try to either run on the current frame, or be skipped, based on how much load is put on the servers.
My current understanding, based on Star Citizen's published material, is that there is presently one server for every 50 players, and that server handles an entire star system. Having one server for every 50 players right now is fine, and that number can hopefully be increased as optimizations happen within the code.
The important part is modifying the server code so that they can separate different Object Containers to separate physical server hardware. This would allow them to, for instance, have one server, with its own message pump, handle Port Olisar, for up to 50 players. For v0 of server meshing, I would imagine that, when the 51st player comes to PO, they would have to spin up a new server for that person of PO, and they would be on their own. When the player count goes back below 50, that server can go back to sleep and is available to be repurposed for whatever other area needs it, dynamically. As players leave PO, and go into space, each part of space could have dedicated servers for that area. The same goes for planets, or cities. Each would be its own Object Container, each Object Container could contain smaller Object Containers, so that as players move around, servers would seamlessly spin up or down to host content for the players. Technically, one server could even host multiple separate Object Containers if they both have low player counts.
This would go a very long way towards making the universe feel full and connected. To start out with, you might still only find a maximum of 50 people on Daymar, but you might also find 50 people on Yela, or ArcCorp. Each place could be full, with the game client switching servers when going to different areas. Server Object Container Streaming is what enables this. It is just a matter of handling the trade off between servers, and keeping everything synchronized. I recognize that the posts that CIG makes on the subject are often hard to understand for laymen, but these posts make me feel confident that they are making progress and heading in a meaningful direction toward the end goal of having us seamlessly switch between servers on the fly.
One thing that I have no heard anything about is the transition towards specialized physical hardware for handling some of these large-scale server-side operations. If they are using regular CPU/GPU operations, performance could be *vastly* improved by creating FPGAs or ASICs that could perform calculations with greater alacrity than a GPU could ever hope to. This is the type of hardware used in medical devices, data centers, or bitcoin mining.
I wrote this up purely to help people understand some aspects of software engineer, and no part of it is meant to be so specific that you should interpret it to be exactly how something works. I am trying to provide a high level, easy to understand, idea of some very complex concepts.
If there is any other part of development that you would like me to comment on feel free to @ me with VerdantNonsense :) Stay safe out there.
submitted by VerdantNonsense to starcitizen [link] [comments]

Leads you to a comprehensive understanding of Forbes

Leads you to a comprehensive understanding of Forbes

https://preview.redd.it/1dra1br1xu351.png?width=740&format=png&auto=webp&s=925b38326cb8aa4f4b2863670ada61005ee72c4c
What is the hottest blockchain project in 2020?
Besides GFS, GFS is still GFS in my mind! GFS currency - the only token of Forbes cross chain blockchain!
Forbes is the latest generation of blockchain, which can be said to be a new blockchain mode, or it is not a pure blockchain project. As we all know, in the era of blockchain 1.0, the bitcoin of Nakamoto brings decentralized distributed bookkeeping book, which enables human beings to have just assets for the first time; in the era of 2.0, the Ethereum smart contract created by V God makes the blockchain have divergent applications; in the era of 3.0, innovation public chains such as EOS make the application of blockchain easier to land. It will open Forbes in the era of blockchain 4.0 and create a distributed financial era of "ten thousand chain interconnection". My feeling is that Forbes is going to overthrow the traditional Internet and the classic blockchain, and reshape a financial world built directly on the blockchain.
The most classic sentence on the Internet is: change your life, but it has nothing to do with you.
In this way, Forbes uses the philosophy of blockchain and further technology to redo blockchain and bring blockchain to a new dimension. Today's bitcoin looks like a monument and a myth, but Forbes is using its cross chain technology and financial deployment to gently reinterpret the blockchain.
Next, I will expand what you are concerned about and what I see in the form of Q & A:
1. Is it investment or speculation to participate in Forbes?
Although we do not exclude speculation, there is no doubt that participating in Forbes is one of the best investment behaviors in 2020, no less than investing in bitcoin in 2013 and Ethereum in 2016. Forbes is a pure technology project, with no messy black box operation. As Forbes early deployed the ore field to facilitate the construction of cross chain system, early users can rent the Forbes BTC miner loaded with self-developed bitcoin ASIC chips by way of mortgage, with the strongest configuration on the ground. Moreover, in the process of mining, the early nodes do not even need to pay a penny, only mortgage deposit can deploy the physical miner. The income obtained can also participate in the early stage node plan carried out by Dao organization, and part of the income can be converted into GFS through Forbes wallet.
And the deposit is not a routine, all the mortgage deposits will be locked in the chain. With the shortening of the lease term, each day will be returned to the user's wallet through the "deposit smart contract", without any centralized individual and organization participation in the whole process. In this way, it is equivalent to zero risk investment! After all, Forbes, with its cryptology and open source spirit, is inherently powerful. What Forbes wants to change is the life of centralization!
And then there's no more. Jane is not simple.
2. Why do you like Forbes?
Very simple, blockchain 4.0
First of all, let's not talk about anything. Forbes has solved a problem - mining hegemony.
In the past, blockchain seems that nodes can enter and leave freely, but in fact, it needs a huge threshold to become nodes and obtain mining rewards. Whether it's bitcoin, you need to buy very expensive and complex mining equipment (ASIC miner), or EOS, Tron and other POS projects, and you need to hold a large number of coins to be elected as nodes. All in all, most of the current blockchain systems need very high mining costs, which in essence violates the principle of zhongbencong's blockchain design.
The powerful thing about Forbes is that it creatively constructs dpoc as a consensus mechanism of trunk chain (main chain). Dpoc is a kind of common understanding of POC. There is no big deployment threshold for mining with hard disk miner. As a result of the consensus between Forbes blockchain Multi Chain Design and dpoc, all mining machines that do not have the relay chain node selected can pack the interaction information between the parallel chain and the relay chain, and can also obtain the block reward. In essence, such a design realizes Zhongben Cong's idea that everyone can dig. Let alone Forbes to build a mine pool, to build the strongest mining machine that can dig out the Forbes token GFS.
With this in mind, which blockchain product can match.
Layout of Forbes
The vision of Forbes: to build the most universal distributed financial system in the world, driven by Forbes, the most widely used cross chain system in the world.
I saw two key words: cross chain, distributed Finance
Cross chain is the most urgent problem in current blockchain ecology. In the past 10 years, various blockchain systems have been deepening in security and performance, but no progress has been made in chain and chain scalability. As you can see, the chain and the chain is an island. Can EOS players and wave players break the bond?
In the human financial life, transaction, loan, personal credit, supply chain finance, stock, commodity... They are directly full of interaction and connection. It can be said that human beings are dealing with all kinds of transactions all the time. Can the isolated blockchain really solve the problem?
Forbes is born to be a global distributed financial system and truly a financial ecosystem. Imagine what a change it would be if you could smoothly carry out blockchain financial activities with foreign small partners. This pattern is too big for me to say. But please believe that if this is done, it can be described as a complete disaster.

https://preview.redd.it/ee15vfv8xu351.png?width=1450&format=png&auto=webp&s=b36e2aa2548e0320b127d30e67d28511a666b30b
3. Is it better to mine or invite new people?
Since this is my experience interpretation, I think: invite, boldly invite new people. Every time you invite one, you add a certain amount of calculation power. It's good to mine in Buddhism, but if you can participate in the birth of a great project, you can get more profits. Why not?
Let's take a different perspective: now that you recognize Forbes, you recognize its value. Or you're not going to dig, are you! So, why can't we add more yards! Since we are trying to change our destiny, this is the highest lever. If it does, which lever can be bigger than Forbes!
So, invest money or energy, and do what you can.
4. Do I want to join the Forbes pool project?
Do you want to do it.
They all recognize the value, so they can download the application directly.
My original intention:
First of all, GFS coin is a new mining model - POC hard disk mining that "everyone can dig, everyone can benefit". It avoids pow (proof of work workload) which is a large power consumption mode. In the initial stage of the main network online, Forbes opened the mine pool plan, leasing the mine machine at zero cost, becoming the earliest node of blockchain 4.0 representing the project, and obtaining the maximum benefit. Why not? You know, GFS production is also halved in four years. To dig now is to dig bitcoin before 2013, without cost.
Secondly, in this stage, we can also increase the number of invited nodes. After the completion of the mining pool plan, we can only rely on hard indicators to increase the computing power. Now we can also rely on our efforts to get more profits. Therefore, in the face of equal opportunities for all, this is a great opportunity to take the initiative. Still hesitant?
5. Blockchain is my knowledge blind area. What can I do if I don't understand cross chain knowledge?
First of all, you have to ask you, this is the excuse you don't want to get wealth?
Not only Forbes is your knowledge blind area, but blockchain is a knowledge blind area for ordinary people. However, you should know that in 2020, the State advocates blockchain, the central bank DCEP has been put into trial operation, and blockchain has been applied in many aspects. Are you still in your blind spot?
Of course, it's not good to pull the national flag. Let's talk about something practical. Opportunity always appears in new things. Ask, what's the matter with you, a solidified model? You have money or connections. I believe that choice is more important than effort. A road, if we choose the wrong direction at the beginning, the harder we work, the farther away we are from our goal.
Therefore, the knowledge blind spot is not my problem, but whether you have a heart willing to contact new things!
Among the miners I know, there is a 67 year old elder brother who has been a soldier, a factory, a traditional businessman and a cell phone. Do you still have his blind spot?
6. Will Forbes succeed?
To be honest, I don't know. But I know that it is the blockchain project that I hope to reach the most in 2020. For details, please refer to the second question, why I like Forbes. If you really question Forbes, you can choose to only participate in the "miner Alliance Plan" and choose to mine at zero cost. No matter how the Forbes project progresses, you can get the benefit of mining without cost. Why not? Besides, when the Forbes project is really implemented, you can decide whether to invest in GFS. I'm sure you will have your own judgment at that time.
7. What is the most important thing to dig GFS?
Insist, insist, or insist.
We must make full use of our efforts in the earliest planning activities of the mine pool. After all, mining at zero cost + inviting to increase the calculation power and increase the support in the wet season. At this stage, we must dig more coins and exchange more for GFS. Maybe the reward coins you dig out in three months can't be found in a year after you try to buy hard disk mining machines for nodes.

https://preview.redd.it/wi81roocxu351.png?width=750&format=png&auto=webp&s=0cd677f420071cfad942e426d4b415165915c2d0
8. There are so many people who rent mining machines first. Do I have a chance?
People die more than people, and goods are thrown away more than goods. Don't compare with others, just be yourself.
God said, I can fulfill your one wish, but I will give you twice as many neighbors.
You will choose 10 million positive choices,
Or one less arm in the dark?
Mining is like this. Those old miners are your neighbors. Dare to own 10 million good, do not think about neighbors than you 10 million. Is that right? And when there are 10000 GFS, do you still want someone to have 100 more than you?
9. How much is GFS worth?
To be honest, I don't know. The number of GFS is 21 million bitcoin, and the price of bitcoin is about 60000 yuan. The GFS main network has just been launched. In some markets, its price has increased more than 10 times in five days, far exceeding the price of bitcoin before the half reduction. The miners who rent mining machines in advance are blessed.
As for the future, with the start of the implementation of blockchain financial facilities this year, GFS must be just the beginning. Where is the top? We witnessed it together.
10. Which do I want, kusd or usdt?
For now, it doesn't matter which one you use. Although usdt has a lot of potential risks, there are still many people using it. However, we all know that it will have a thunderstorm sooner or later.
As a cross chain gold stable currency, when cross chain finance begins to integrate into public life, kusd will show its power, which is better than issuing a usdt once in a chain. Moreover, more than 95% of the value of each kusd is based on gold, which can be exchanged by major gold exchanges in the world. The stability of gold. Have you seen it clearly in this epidemic? This is beyond the dollar.
submitted by forbeschain to u/forbeschain [link] [comments]

TOP 3 Anonymous Cryptocurrencies

TOP 3 Anonymous Cryptocurrencies
Last year Bitfury’s multidisciplinary Blockchain specialists announced the possibility of revealing the identities of more than 16% of all owners of Bitcoin addresses. Several years ago, a team of CryptoLux developers, having conducted a study of transaction privacy on the Bitcoin network, concluded that 60% of all addresses can be deanonymized. Summarizing all this, it’s worth highlighting three existing methods that can successfully deanonymize private transactions.

Clustering

The easiest way to cluster (link Bitcoin addresses) is by analyzing transactional networks. In other words, this is a method that allows finding several inputs combined in one transaction. The second clustering method is “distribution analysis”. It allows calculation the percentage of cryptocurrency at the certain address that comes from another specific address and it becomes clear whether these addresses are connected by one direct transaction or a chain of transactions or not.

Graph analysis

It consists of quantitative and temporal analyzes. Quantitative analysis studies not certain transactions, but amounts. Time analysis tracks specific periods.

Memory Pool Method

When a transaction is made through the user’s wallet, the input nodes send information about the transaction to the Blockchain network. The purpose of this method is to identify the set of input nodes through the wallet and the user. In this case, the IP address of the client can be associated with its transactions. There are certain private cryptocurrency-leaders which are popular and trusted among users. Using one feature-privacy, they have different ways of functioning.

Basic principles of work: anonymous cryptocurrencies (Monero, Dash, Zcash)

Monero

The platform focuses on privacy and decentralization. The coin uses three levels of protection:
• Ring signatures, that hide the origin of the sender by mixing the user’s address with the addresses of other group members. • Ring confidential transactions, which hide the amount of the transaction. • Stealth addresses, that allow a user to hide the recipient’s address.
Such way guarantees the privacy of the sender and the recipient. Monero can be bought on Poloniex, Bitfinex, Livecoin, and Kraken crypto exchanges. It is possible to store Monero via an online wallet. More secure is its computer wallet. Due to its privacy, the popularity of the coin is expected to grow, so it makes sense to add a coin to an investment portfolio.
Advantages
• Increased privacy. Cryptocurrency is suitable for those who are afraid of deanonymizing network transactions. • Unlimited and difficult mining. • It takes less time to find blocks. • Resistance to the centralization of mining capacities.
Disadvantages
• Resources. All currency protection technologies require impressive machine performance for normal operation. The Monero block size is constantly growing, and this requires additional resources of network participants. • The popularity in the dark web leads to problems in working with regulatory authorities, exchanges often delist it. Speaking of reputation, Monero’s reputation is far from the best. The coin is often used on the dark web as payment for various illegal services. It happens to almost all crypto coins that provide privacy. • Large transaction sizes. Since Monero Blockchain is five times larger than the Bitcoin Blockchain in terms of one transaction. • Problems with scalability.

Dash

The Dash platform is a classic decentralized Blockchain-based payment system and the most technologically advanced cryptocurrency. It implements multi-off-chain money transfers without loss of reliability and overall security of the Blockchain. Its confidentiality is rather an additional option that can be used optionally. In the case of anonymity, it is possible to send a hidden transaction, but at a more expensive cost, which also requires additional time. Dash developed a hashing algorithm with eleven cryptographic functions-X 11 for the first time. The coin developers have released apps for other platforms. Today it is possible to use Dash for IOS, Zeal for Linux, LovelyDocs for Android and Velocity for Windows.
As well known, the CoinJoin is an anonymization method for crypto transactions, which is used by Dash as an improved version called the PrivateSend. Its mixing sessions are limited to 1,000 DASH for each session and will require multiple mixing sessions to anonymize a large amount of money.
Advantages
• High transaction speed. It is achieved via InstantX technology, which enables the confirmation of operations in less than 4 seconds. • Law transaction fees. • Energy consumption. Unlike Monero, it does not require a lot of power or high commission costs.
Disadvantages
• “Transparency” of the network. Without triggering the “mixing” mechanism, the directions of transactions and their balances are publicly visible to everyone. • Lack of proper cryptographic technologies that provide privacy, but can provide a sufficiently high level of protection. • Transaction visibility to the founders and the team.

Zcash

An open-source decentralized cryptocurrency that provides users with maximum privacy. Zcash is the first private cryptocurrency, using cryptographic protocol zk-SNARKS, a zero-knowledge security layer. It allows users to make hidden and open transactions.
Mathematically guaranteed privacy is something cryptocurrency can not be proud of. This fact makes the currency specific. All Zcash coins are identical, it means that interchangeable coins do not contain information about past use created. In this regard, the connection of coins with their history on the Blockchain is broken, which makes them universal and identical to each other. Zcash blocks are generated 4 times faster than Bitcoin. The currency trades on Huobi, Bitfinex and Binance exchanges, and after purchase, it can be stored on the exchange’s internal wallet, as well as transferred to Jaxx, Cryptonator and Coinomi multi-currency wallets. Coins can also be stored on hardware wallets like Ledger and Trezor.
Advantages
• Privacy. Since no information except the time stamp, is recorded in the Blockchain, transactions cannot be tracked, and the identity of the sender and recipient is almost impossible to establish. • Interchangeability. Due to interchangeability, all coins have a “clean” history. This means that it is practically impossible to determine which transactions coin was used. • Security. Lack of information about user keys, which protects user wallets and the network.Mining energy efficiency. Zcash mining hardware consumes less electricity than Bitcoin mining ASICs. • The difficulty of mining. Zcash is beneficial for those who want to get coins for block creation. Bitcoin mining becomes more and more complicated, so miners cannot earn enough money via their computers with high capacity.
Disadvantages
• 6 users can decide to leave the transferred data completely open. • It takes a lot of calculations to complete a transaction. • Insecurity. There are fears that the system could be hacked, or users may accidentally open the data. • Legally ZCash is supported only by Linux, however, it provides users with wallets for other platforms: Jaxx, Ledger, Trezor, Trust, Zecwallet, Ibitcome, Exodus, Guarda, Coinomi, Cobowallet, and Bitgo.
Private cryptocurrencies are necessary for anyone who values the privacy and confidentiality of financial transactions. Privacy can generate more value, than danger, as Eric Hughes says: “Privacy is necessary for an open society in the electronic age. Privacy is not secrecy. A private matter is something one doesn’t want the whole world to know, but a secret matter is something one doesn’t want anybody to know. Privacy is the power to selectively reveal oneself to the world”.
submitted by Stealthex_io to StealthEX [link] [comments]

Cosmos Hub ATOM Token and the commonly misunderstood staking token - Yield does not equal Profit

Cosmos Hub ATOM Token and the commonly misunderstood staking token - Yield does not equal Profit
This is part three where we look at the ATOM token and general misconceptions around staking tokens. Part one can be found here and part Two can be found here

The ATOM token

I often see a lot of confusion around what the ATOM token is used for, so let me clarify:
  • The ATOM token is NOT used for all staking / transactions across the entire Cosmos Ecosystem. It is specific to only the Cosmos Hub. The Cosmos hub is one of many hubs / zones within the Cosmos Ecosystem. There are other hubs live today such as IRIS (which has its own token IRIS) and Sentinel due to launch later this month (which has its own token SENT). Each Zone will also have its own token to incentivise validators to secure their zone.
  • Transactions fees paid for the Cosmos Hub Do Not have to be paid using ATOM, a wide selection of different tokens will be able to be used to pay transaction fees such as BTC, ETH etc. The incentive for staking is that you will receive a proportion of these fees in the various currencies depending on the number of ATOMs staked.
  • It is NOT a currency, nor your normal token that you invest in and just HODL on your ledger. It is a staking token used to secure the Cosmos Hub. ATOM is hyper inflationary (which rewards those that stake the token to provide security to the Cosmos Hub and punishes those that don’t stake via decrease in value per ATOM via inflation.
  • The Top 100 Validators which stake the most atoms are selected for validating / creating new transactions
ATOMs are like ASICs, just as ASICs are a piece of capital you need in order to mine POW chains like Bitcoin, ATOMs are a piece of capital that you need in order to stake on the cosmos hub and earn transaction fees going through that hub. If a lot of ASICs are already in use it is very difficult to attack the network and similarly if a lot of ATOMs are staked, then it is very difficult for someone to buy a large portion of the ATOMs to attack the network. You can read the document explaining the token by the team here as well as the video below (time stamped from 44:30) as well as here

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hREydu6Llac&t=2670s

Staking Tokens

Staking tokens are very commonly misunderstood by people, they assume its a passive income where they can earn 10–20% for doing nothing but staking their tokens. Rewards are created by minting new tokens via Inflation, this depreciates the asset of each token by increasing total supply of the tokens. To counter the negative effect of inflation, you can stake your tokens to earn a reward which is greater than the inflation increases. If there was 20% inflation and 100% of the tokens were staked, then there would be no rewards. It’s would just be like projects increased their total supply when doing coin swaps such as VEN going to VET where they increased the total supply of the tokens and everyone received the same proportion. Those that do not stake are punished as they are not receiving the % increase in new supply and so their proportion is diluted.
There are many examples of some version of the following: “Earn a 15% yield per annum when you stake on x network!” This is at best misleading and at worst potentially fraudulent depending on the jurisdiction where these claims are being made. It causes token holders to evaluate and hold PoS tokens on a basis that isn’t applicable or relevant. Even worse, using these words incorrectly can lead regulators to draw unnecessary negative conclusions about how to tax and regulate these networks/tokens: “If you are calling it yield then it should be taxed as income…” Staking rewards — and the possibility of slashing — are a set of incentives that encourage token holders and validators to secure a PoS blockchain. In return, they maintain or grow their relative share of token holdings in the network. Staking creates the “skin in the game” necessary for good behavior such as running nodes in the network and discouraging bad behaviors like failing to remain online or double signing. Staking rewards do NOT exist to provide an income stream to token holders. Think instead, “by staking I can increase my network participation (ownership if you like) by 0.3% over the following year” or “if I do not stake, my relative participation/ownership in the network will be diluted by 1.5% over the next 12 months”. The economic rationale for staking a PoS token is not to receive “yield” (it doesn’t exist) but because you believe that by doing so you will be growing your relative interest in the network and also contributing to significant token appreciation.
The above is taken from a great article which can be found here which explains the commonly misunderstood Staking Token and related terms such as Yield and Inflation.

Basic Example of how this works

To see how it works let’s look at a basic example. For simplicity assume there are only 2 Validators, “Validator 1" and “Validator 2" and there is a current total supply of 1000 tokens. 300 tokens are being staked with each Validator, with the validator for each staking 150 tokens and the delegators also staking 150 tokens. 60% of the total supply is staked whilst 40% is not staked.

https://preview.redd.it/en0kuks1deb31.png?width=1100&format=png&auto=webp&s=b8a16460fa277be3f1a7d8000af672573b884f51

Again, to keep it simple rather than do the rewards per block i am just going to use the yearly figures. So, if total supply is 1000 and inflation is set at 20% then there will be 200 tokens to be minted over a year to be used for rewards and added to the total supply. So total supply now becomes 1200 and the 200 tokens are distributed according to the diagram below (and using the commission / staking values in the diagram above)

https://preview.redd.it/5iwj4bo3deb31.png?width=2640&format=png&auto=webp&s=9519f8d171e78b2a255644a07e3887b8ee15ab9c
So now that the 200 tokens have been minted the total supply has now increased to 1200 and we can compare how the proportions of supply have changed.
The users that didn’t stake — initially had 40% of the supply, they have been penalized for not staking and now only own 33.33% of the supply. (Note they haven’t had any tokens removed from them it’s because additional tokens have been minted and they haven’t received a proportion of them by not staking.) — a decrease of 6.66%
Delegator using validator charging 20% commission — Initially had 15% of the supply and now has 15.84% of the supply — an increase of 0.84%
Validator charging 20% commission — Initially had 15% of the supply now has 17.5% of the supply — an increase of 2.5%
Validator charging 10% commission — Initially had 15% of the supply now has 17.08% of the supply — an increase of 2.08%
Delegator using validator charging 10% commission — Initially had 15% of the supply and now has 16.26% of the supply — an increase of 1.25%

https://preview.redd.it/2s0yutj5deb31.png?width=1100&format=png&auto=webp&s=481e4073b3ea25d9f2919693b94c7863ed44f652
You can see how the users that don’t stake get penalized by not receiving rewards with the increase of additional supply. The proportion of supply that they lose gets transferred to those that stake.

21 Day unbonding period

To protect against a validator attacking the network and then immediately withdrawing his stake, the Cosmos Hub is enforcing a 21-day unbonding period. During this period, staked Atoms do not receive rewards anymore, but slashing is still possible. This means your Atoms are illiquid for 21-days after you decide to stop staking. You will not be able to trade them on an exchange etc until the 21 days have passed. There are however exchanges now looking at offering services where you keep your ATOM on their exchange, and they stake them for you. This has advantages of being able to day trade etc whilst still earning rewards to counter inflation. The downsides are that they normally charge high commission (30%), plus security wise its not great to have everyone leaving their tokens on an exchange as has been proven time and time again. The other potential issue is that it gives the exchanges a lot of voting power over the network if everyone uses them which creates centralisation and may be more inclined to vote on for governance that benefits them. EOS has this issue.
Whale Exchange, Newdex, Hufu, Bigone, and several other exchanges and wallets, have been elected as the top 10 BPs. In the meanwhile, the original supernodes, EOS Newyork, EOS42, EOS Authority, and EOS Canada, all have dropped out the top 21 rankings. Huobi Pool continues to see its dominance. At present, two of the top 5 ranked super nodes belong to one entity: EOSLaomao and Bigone exchanges both belong to the individual Laomao and team. The interests of the two are closely tied, and the strong essentially becomes stronger. And now we are seeing a phenomenon where an overarching number of top BPs are coming from mainland China, and in other words, we are seeing EOS even more centralized than before. Most of the top supernodes currently as of publishing date are either based in China or ran by a Chinese team Brian, the head of the EOS Amsterdam community, also believes that the exchange is considered to be the “leader in the ecosystem”. He is more worried, however, that the supernodes are almost occupied by mainland China nodes, leading to network security vulnerability, centralization and long-term negative PR. This would subsequently bring down the price of the token.
https://globalcoinresearch.com/2019/07/11/the-rising-trend-of-exchanges-participating-as-eos-bps-eos-becoming-even-more-centralized/?source=post_page---------------------------

Slashing

Staking is not without its risks and it’s important to choose a secure and trusted validator or risk having your tokens that are staked slashed. On the 29th June the first validator had all tokens that were staked with them slashed by 5% due to a misconfiguration which caused them to double sign a block. Whilst in this case, the slashing was neither the consequence of an attack on the network nor the result of a compromised validator key, it demonstrates that slashing is real and that validators should carefully design their infrastructure to mitigate the risk of losing their own and their delegators’ funds.

https://preview.redd.it/m0iqeqpddeb31.png?width=542&format=png&auto=webp&s=aaa36fc6a95a4f9f366e8cc7e980343117cb8cca

How to choose which Validator to delegate to?

The first metric I look at when evaluating validators is how much self-bond they have. If they have 30% or higher self-bond, this gives me confidence that they don’t want to get slashed as much as I (delegator) don’t want to get slashed. When a validator has low self-bond (1% or less), it makes me less likely to bond to them because they are playing with other peoples’ money, and there’s less incentive for them to bolster their setups. Many of the top validators are highly visible by making their contributions to the ecosystem known. A lot of them have built useful tools that add to the richness of the Cosmos ecosystem, and thus you recognize their brand through their contribution. For example, you would know about a validator because you’ve used their block explorer. All this of course isn’t telling of the hardness of their setups. This part is hard to verify yourself without going into their data centers and auditing their servers yourself. For now, doing your research on what they’ve got set up as described by their website/content is the best option to understanding what kind of setup they’ve built.
https://medium.com/@huobiwallet/cosmos-ama-on-huobi-wallet-d6b75f6ed492
Tendermint uses Proof of Stake where all validators are known before hand. The current maximum amount of Validators is 100. Validators run a full node for the Cosmos hub and provide its security, as well as being able to vote on Governance about future decisions for the Hub. The 100 Validators which stake the most ATOMs are selected. Currently the minimum amount of ATOM staked to be in the top 100 is 39,047 ATOMs.
The amount of ATOMs staked by a Validator is a combination of ATOM’s that the validator personally holds as well as Delegators, those that rather than run a validator, delegate their stake to another validator and receive a % of their rewards depending on the amount they delegate. There is normally a commision fee that the validator takes as a fee as a % of the rewards received for delegating to them which can normally ranges from 0% to 30% (can see in the picture below). This pays for the equipment, wages etc needed to run a secure validator.
https://preview.redd.it/w7fudoigdeb31.png?width=770&format=png&auto=webp&s=49835b8cb0972090187765a69366a143baadf342
Tendermint requires 2/3 of votes for consensus to be reached. Currently 2/3 of the vote are controlled by the Top 16 Validators (so effectively if these all agree to vote on a proposal then that would be sufficient without the input of the other 84).
If a validator / group of validators control more than 1/3 of the vote then whilst they can’t force any changes through, they can prevent any further proposals from being accepted that they don’t agree with regardless of what other validators vote. So the idea is to have the voting power distributed widely throughout the top 100 for more decentralisation.

Calculating the values for Cosmos

Current Total Supply:

There is no fixed total supply of ATOMs and the total supply will increase each year by between 7% and 20% due to inflation.
https://stargate.cosmos.network/staking/pool
{ "not_bonded_tokens": "71341288426570", "bonded_tokens": "170079253911157" }
Bonded Tokens + Not Bonded Tokens = Total Supply.
The values in the API include 6 decimal places so you need to divide the number by 1,000,000. So to work out the total supply it would be:
(71341288426570 + 170079253911157) / 1,000,000 = 241,420,542.337727‬ ATOM
You then have a minimum of 7% and a maximum of 20% inflation per year on top of that depending on how much has been staked.

Circulating Supply:

The only tokens that are under a vesting period are for All in Bits Inc (AiB, the company doing business as “Tendermint”). They have a total of 23,619,895.81 ATOMs vested which are split into two sets, each subject to a different form of vesting.
The first set consists of 1,777,707 ATOMs allocated to 44 addresses owned by AiB founders, contractors, and employees, current and past. These atoms are non-transferable for 12 months, but can be used for staking and governance. These will become unlocked on the 13th March 2020.
The remaining set of AiBs atoms are held in an AiB multisig and vest continuously starting 2 months after genesis. This is a total of 21,842,188.81 ATOMs.
Each month 992,826.76 of these are released on the 13th (Starting May 13th 2019 and finishing on March 13th 2021.
So Circulating Supply = Total Supply — (Amount Vested by AIB)
Circulating Supply = 241,039,982.546951 — (1,777,707– (21,842,188.81 — (3 x 992,826.76)) (represents 3 months which have been released so far)
Circulating Supply = 220,398,567.016951 ATOMs
Current Market Cap: $872,778,325.39

How to work out Profit from Staking

The Annual reward yield is currently 10.19 % which can be seen from sites such as here
This is the bit where people get confused with staking. They see 10.19 % reward and think easy money, passive income etc. What you need to understand is that these rewards are from new ATOMs being minted and added to the supply via inflation. And so with a higher supply the value of each ATOM is worth less.

Calculate effective reward rate in ATOMs

((100% — Commission Rate%) * Yield Rate) — Inflation
So if you delegate with a validator which charges 20% commission
It would be (0.8 * 10.19) — 7.66 = 0.492% a year in ATOMs

Calculate effective profit in FIAT terms

ATOMs hasn’t been trading for a full year but if we take the first value in CMC which is $6.44 and is currently $3.95 which is a decrease of 38.66% per ATOM. The yearly reward yield is 10.19% so in profit terms its 10.19–38.66 = -28.47%
Profit in USD Terms = 10.19–38.66 = a loss of 28.47% in USD

Calculate effective profit in BTC terms

At the start of trading each ATOM was worth 0.00164490 satoshis, as of the time of this writing they are now 0.00037155 satoshis which is a decrease of 77.41%
Profit in BTC terms = Reward Rate + Change in Price per ATOM in BTC over year
Profit in BTC Terms = 10.19–77.41 = a loss of 67.22 % in BTC
Note that these calculations do not include transaction costs for traffic going through the Hub. Once IBC is released (minimum viable product version is supposed to be at the end of this year, so i would estimate mid next year for full feature version to be released), adoption of the ecosystem will increase and zones will be transferring between each other over hubs then additional revenue is earned via transaction fees of other tokens.
This site you can see the correct value for Total Supply, % Bonded and Inflation Rate https://www.mintscan.io/
Be warned there are some other sites such as https://stakingrewards.com/asset/atom which show incorrect values (for example they say the staking ratio is currently 88.06% which is incorrect and skews the figures for rewards. Mintscan is accurate and the API site that i listed before is direct from the Cosmos Official website so is correct.
https://medium.com/@CryptoSeq/cosmos-atom-token-and-the-commonly-misunderstood-staking-tokens-part-three-958c295c5b78
submitted by xSeq22x to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Start Here for Much Wallet WOW!

EDIT 2017-02-10: A word about Nodes

There is a discussion about nodes that came up today, where it seems I'm discouraging people from running the full QT/Core client. Yes and No. What I'm trying to make sure people understand is how things work, and that it is NOT mandatory to run a client in order to use Dogecoins (and yes, I realise that browser-based tools like coinb.in and wallet sweepers are 'clients' by strict definition).
That said, more nodes is absolutely a good thing for the network. Preferrably full nodes. How do you run a full node? Just run Core/QT and open up Port 22556 on your router so it can connect to more than 8 peers. What will it cost you? You need your machine to be on 24/7/365, you need enough storage for the full blockchain (currently about 20Gb. Bitcoin is over 120Gb) and enough bandwidth to keep it in sync and share blocks with peers. A couple of Gb a month, most likely. This is best done with a desktop on a wired broadband link. Or maybe a hosted VM in the cloud. :)

EDIT 2017-01-09: Wallets WITHOUT Clients

Since I started helping people on /BitcoinBeginners, I'm getting a lot of questions about how to use wallets without running clients or trusting third parties. So here are a couple of resources that will make that possible, and not just for Dogecoin:
Multi-Coin Wallet Generator Now supporting 129 currencies! Coinb.in Start by setting the currency, found in the gear wheel in the Broadcast tab. Dogecoin Wallet Sweeper Redeem 'paper' wallets containing up to about 100 UTXOs. Bitinfo Charts My favourite block explorer, handles a bunch of cryptos.
Using these resources, it is possible to hold, receive and spend coins in various currencies, without having to run QT or a 'lite' client. You can also download and run the pages on your own device.

EDIT 2016-11-23: SEMANTICS about MINING! :P

Even though there is already a section on mining below, it has been suggested given the huge number of posts on the subject that this needs to be made clearer. Since people get their panties in a twist over the word 'dead', lets change that...

MINING IS DEAD!

MINING DOGECOIN IS UNPROFITABLE!

Put simply, there is no way to mine Dogecoin and make a profit because of the massive hashpower provided by industrial-scale Litecoin miners. Mining Doge directly stopped being viable when our hashrate exploded with the introduction of AuxPoW. Mining with CPU's and GPU's died when ASICs were introduced. And mining with a laptop WILL kill your laptop and cost you a fortune to repair or replace. Mining Litecoin with an exchange that also mines Doge and others will earn less than the electricity consumed, and you won't recover your costs. Probably ever, but certainly not in any reasonable time.
Mining other currencies may be a thing, but that's beyond our scope here. This is /Dogecoin, not /GetRichMiningCryptos after all. If you want to mine the newest scamcoin for fun and profit, look elsewhere for advice. :/
Oh, and most important:

READ BEFORE YOU POST!

At any given time, there are half a dozen posts on the frontpage just like the one you're about to write, where the answers have already been given. Read them. Don't make people waste their time repeating themselves because you were too lazy to bother reading stuff. :P
So there I was, having a quiet Sundy arvo bludge, as you do, when 42points turned up on Facebook and asked me to write a new sticky post for /dogecoin. Why would he do this, when he should be having a bludge himself, I hear you ask? Well, seems he was doing exactly that, and wanted to fob off the work he’s too slack to do himself. ;) Ah well, being a sucker for punishment, I’ll grudgingly oblige I guess.
OK, first things first.

The Clients:

Dogecoin Core 1.10.0 2015-Nov-01
Bootstrap file for Core to save some download time.
Dogecoin Core Guide Wiki
MultiDoge v0.1.7 2016-Jan-31
Android Dogecoin Wallet 2.0.8 2016-Jan-18
Android Coinomi Wallet
Java Cate 0.14 alpha 2 Multicoin wallet 2016-Feb-14
Exodus multicoin wallet
iOS Doughwallet

Do you REALLY need a client?

Wallet ELI5
UTXO ELI5
Paper Wallet Generator
Sample HTML Wallet List
Dogetipbot subreddit and website
Dogechain Wallet
Block.io Wallet
Exchanges
BTC38
Poloniex
CoinSpot
ShapeShift - Not really an exchange, rather a currency trader.

Mining

Litecoinpool
Prohashing
Zpool

Explorers

BitInfoCharts - My favourite, has charts!
chain.so
dogechain.info
/dogecoindev where the devs hang out

More Info

Dogeducation
Technical Wiki
Preev currency value calculator

EDITS:

From peoplma
I was wondering if you could add just a couple things. A link to the coinomi android wallet, it's probably the best one out there. And a sentence somewhere along the lines of "if you need help with any dogecoin software you are welcome to make a post, but PLEASE include your OS, version number of the client, and any relevant transaction IDs that you are willing to share" if you can fit that in somewhere.
Also, if you want to link to Prohashing, I'm pretty sure it's the only Scrypt mining pool that will actually pay out in doge. The others I know of pay out in litecoin or bitcoin. And it's a profit switching multipool, so gives a better return than just mining ltc/doge.
And there's these two wiki articles I thought would be helpful to link /dogecoin/wiki/technical for those technically minded newbies or intermediate users who want to dig a little deeper. And maybe a link to /dogecoin/wiki/dogecoincoreguide next to the link for dogecoin core.
From pts2002
Finally a proper sticky post! Here's some other stuff you could add:
zpool.ca mining pool - You can get paid in pretty much any coin, and you can mine in multiple algos (currently mining lyra2v2 with my GPU). Doing about 500Ð/day
shapeshift.io exchange - My favourite exchange, quick and easy. No registration required!
Also, you should add some blockchain explorers!
chain.so - Support for bitcoin, litecoin and doge.
dogechain.info - Official blockchain explorer. Includes a wallet (already mentioned). Live update currently not working (?)
EDIT: Here's another thing I found!
preev.com currency value calculator - Easy way to check the value of your dogecoins (or bitcoins, or litecoins, or peercoins)!
submitted by Fulvio55 to dogecoin [link] [comments]

AMA in the community

Q1:- What is SpockChain & its Current Progress? What are the Problems SpockChain trying to solve?

Ans:- Spock has been launched its mainnet on 8/13 2019, it’s the first public blockchain support Solidity smart contract with PoC consensus. In the last month, we have achieved several goals: 1.launched the mainnet, 2.been listed on 6 exchanges, and also Spock has won the voting competition for free list on MXC. 3. Spockpool is online to help small miners to union their capacity and get share of the mining reward. Spock is building a decentralized application network with PoC consensus, which is a more cost saving, environment friendly solution for blockchain system. Spock is going to release is first smart contract in the following months.

Q2:- What is the Use-case Of Spok Coin In Your Ecosystem? How can Holders & Investors Generate Rewards Using Spock Platform?

Ans:- In Spock Network, People can publish/run the apps on the network, all the dapps running on the network needs SPOK. and besides PoC consensus, Spock also involves the concept of PoS, which is that miners need to stake some coins to mine the coins, if not, the miner cannot get the 100% of the block reward, so in SpockPool, coin holders can lend the coins to the miners, when miners mined the reward, it can share with the coin holders.

Q3:- What is the Need & Importance Of SpockChain project in Blockchain Industry?

Ans:- First of all, I think PoC consensus will be a serious option besides PoW and PoS in future, and there must be a significant project stands for PoC consensus, currently Burst or BHD maybe the one, but these two projects has a common problem is that they do not have ecosystem, they only created a coin with PoC consensus, that’s too simple to today’s blockchain world. Spock will be the star project in this area not only just created a coin with PoC consensus, but also it supports smart contract, Ethereum dapps, games can be easily migrated to Spock network.

Q4:- What are the Milestones SpockChain has achieved from the starting of this project? What are the Long Term Targets?

Ans:- For the first question, I have answered in the previous one. Like launch the mainnet, got investment from Continue Capital and other token funds, IEO/IGO on the several exchanges, got free list on MXC by won the voting competition, released explorer, dashboard, desktop wallet, Android wallet, and SpockPool, all these things above happens in the last month!!! For the short-term goal, Spock is trying to be the Ethereum with PoC consensus, so for the following 6 month to 1 year, Spock will expand the developer community to increase the dapps/tokens on its network. And also the final goal of Spock is to upgrade the consensus not only store the hash value, but also store documents, music, videos, etc. We’re still working on that part.

Segment 2 Questions

Q5:- What are your major goals to archive in the next 3-4 years? Where can we Spockchain ecosystem in this period? What are your plans to expand and gain more adoption?

Ans:- 1. Spreading the Proof of Capacity consensus, let more people know there is another way of mining to gain. 2. Build the developer economy on Spock Network, on Spock Network, not only smart contract, but a new type of tokens will be supported, which is not like the ERC-20, it’s tokens that generated as the block generated, but the developer can define the tokens generation rules, we call them mining-tokens. 3. Search the new way to upgrade the storage network, to finally achieve the goal that the a decentralized storage network can serve the internet users, that would be a totally new future of blockchain world.

Q6:- As a team member of Spockchain, what is your long-term vision about the industry which Spockchain is working at? Are you afraid someday there will be another project with more innovative technology can replace?

Ans:- I think the infrastructure of Blockchain world today has only two main directions: 1. cross chain Technoledge like Cosmos, Polka-dot. 2. Decentralized storage like IPFS. As long as we're heading to the right direction, we won't get a very bad result, even we have failed, but the way we passed through can be borrowed to other projects, there must be some projects success in this area. I feel confident about the project going and what we have done comparing to the other competitors, as currently so many projects claim that they want to be Ethereum in PoC, but none of the has launched the mainnet except SPOCK.

Q7:- Why Spock Network have Chosen Proof of Capacity Consensus Mechanism ? Any advantage over other consensus?

Ans:- Here is the description in the white paper about advantage of PoC:
Environmental protection: When a mining machine is initialized, the mining cost is relatively small, requiring only a small amount of disk access and a small amount of calculations per block.
• Economy: Many PCs have unused disk space. The marginal cost of using these spaces for mining is small, with immediate rewards and can be used for mining. It is not necessary to consider the cost of electricity as a bitcoin mining machine.
• Equality: Today Bitcoin has become the world of Asics mining machines and large mines, and small-scale investors have struggled to participate in the bitcoin mining ecology, while POC-based mining machines are hardly faced with bitcoin-like The mining machine is constantly updating its iterations so that it is completely eliminated.
• “computing power” sharing: BCH is a BTC hard fork chain, so BTC's proprietary mining machine can also dig BCH, but it can't dig BTC and BCH at the same time, and the POC mechanism can make the hard disk for different chains. The spatial "computing power" data structure is consistent, and these "computing power" can be used to dig assets on these chains at the same time.
I think the value of PoC is under-estimated today, that’s why we want to promote the consensus.

Q8:- What are the competitors of Spock Network? How Spock Network is better than their competitors ?

Ans:- In storage domain, they can be: Filecoin/Storj/Sia/Lambda/Filestorm/Yotta
In PoC consensus domain, there are: Burst/BHD/LHD/Boom/Newbi/Disc
In PoC+Smart contract domain, there are: Spock/Galaxy Network/BSN/EHD
Currently, in a completely decentralized blockchain network, there is no such consensus can distribute the coins as the miners contribute the hard disk and network, all these projects take some trade-off to make that happen except File coin, File coin uses Proof of Replication and Proof of Space-time consensus, that may be an option to solve this problem, but its mainnet has not launched, it would take time to achieve that. The Burst, BHD, and other similar projects only uses PoC consensus to created a mining coin, but the usage and scenario are very limited, it’s not year 2013, you can simply create an alt coin and people will buy it. The PoC consensus needs find some usage and scenario to make the network more solid and strong, the smart contract can be the way. As I listed, all the projects have not launched its mainnet except Spock.

Q9:- How Scalable Spock Network have , How many TPS achieved so far ?

Ans:- Spock has its own advantage about improve TPS, because nodes running in the network has much hard disks and network traffic, basically we can increase the size of block header to increase the TPS, and also we're investigating other ways to improve the TPS.

Q10:- Why the name of Project " SPOCK" . What does it signify about your project?

Ans:- Spock is the leading character of Star Trek, we choose the name to inspire the team to keep exploring the possibility of the blockchain world, sand the slogan of Spock is “live long and prosper”, which is also the hope of the team for the project, nowadays, too many fake mining projects out there, Spock wants to show the honesty and integrity by continually showing the code and improving the project.

Q11:- Followed your whitepaper, Spock has a leaderless PoC protocol, does not use a committee or an authority. How this use for? What benefit does it have for Spock?

Ans:- In the consensus level, there is indeed no such organization can change or control it, just like PoW, when the network needs to upgrade its consensus, the community will join the discussion and the dev team will follow the result of it. That's the spirit of Satoshi and all the early blockchain projects.

Q12:- What is the form of Spock mining? What are the conditions for miner application?

Ans:- To mine spock, you can just use normal computer with several hard dist with plotted files, there are tutorials on thehttps://www.spockchain.org

Q13:- What next technology updating after building a decentralized storage data application network in 2021? Will Spock expand to other areas in long term development?

Ans:- I think after the infrastructure is completed that we will focus on the application ecosystem and adoption of the ecosystem, Spock dev team will continue working on the infrastructure and other scenarios/applications to promote the adoption, I think in a very long time, Spock project will only focus on decentralized storage domain.

Q14:- Does your team have a plan to add DAO module into your project since its its effiency on autonomy, decentralization and transparency?

Ans:- Spock will run DAO mode for autonomy, the Spock team is still working on the details of it.

Q15:- What is the role of Smart Contract in Spock Chain? Does your team have a security system to check the operation of whole project?

Ans:- Smart Contract will be the key feature that distinguish Spock and other projects with PoC consensus, Spock leverages lots of work from Ethereum, so Spock is standing on the shoulders of giants, which potential lower-level security risks can be avoid, and we also have a security team to improve the smart contract, like before you submit your smart contract, there is a service to help to analysis the code to help you avoid some common mistakes.

Q16:- What is Spockchain vision and what's your biggest challenges?

Ans:- Spock is trying to be Ethereum with PoC consensus in a short-term, that goal seems to be very promising as everything goes well so far. Spock’s long-term goal is trying to provide a decentralized storage network for all the internet users, that would be challenging from both technical side and business side.

Q17:- Spockchain looks good but it confuses me that there are so many other Blockchain projects. What should I pay attention in Spockchain to give it the importance it deserves? What are you planning to achieve with your project goal?

Ans:- I think code and time talks, Spock is not a simply ERC-20 token, it’s a mining coin. If you checkout the top 50 projects on CMC, most of them are mining projects, because mining coins are very fair way to distribute the coins. And Spock provides another option for mining, you don’t have to search for low-cost electricity power, you can just set up the mining machines at home to mine the coins. It’s a potential mining way to mine cryptocurrency, if you have mined BTC/ETH, you can have a try about Spock/Burst/BHD, etc.

Q18:- Blockchain projects is not a child play. While creating spok projects, have u for once been discouraged to the extent of wishing to stop since its all about intelligent contract and users poc consensus.

Ans:- Honestly, we do. there is so many hard work to combine the smart contract and poc consensus, but we believe the technology and engineering, and we believe the judgement about the trend of blockchain technology, that's what encourage us to the place we have achieved.

Q19:- How the SpockChain project planning process is ensure? The market needs constant progress of project! How to avoid the spok Project idleness?

Ans:- We're continuously building and expanding the community and miner groups, both online and offline side. currently most miners are from Asia(China mostly),there are only several miners in Europe and US, we do want to spread spok ecosystem across other continents, if anyone in other countries is interested in promoting Spock, please directly contact me!

Q20:- Can anyone run a POC mining and does it require much processing power? Is the cost of POC mining high?

Ans:- Yes, anyone can run a PoC mining, it's electricity power insensitive. the electricity power of each petabytes of a day is only several dolloars, while the cost of a petabytes will be about 30000 dollars.

Q21:- Is POC exploitation cost high? What is it suitable for? What is the number of SPOCK user statistics today? Does SPOCK have a plan to attract users?

Ans:- you can check out the websites, Official website: https://www.spockchain.org Spock Explorer: http://www.spock.network Miner Dashboard: https://dashboard.spock.network

Q22:- What is the function of SPOCK? Are there any benefits to SPOCK holders? How do I earn SPOCK?

Ans:- All the smart contract runs on Spock will cost SPOK, and miners want to mine SPOK will need some amount of SPOCK to stake. You can get the Spock on the exchanges that lists Spock, MXC, Coinex, VB, Bihodl, etc.
Q23:- So What does SPOCK ecosystem include? What all problems SPOCK will solve in Crypto market?
Ans:- Spock is trying to be the Ethereum with PoC consensus, the biggest advantage of PoC consensus is that it saves much electricity than PoW, the “computing power “ is kind of like stored on the hard disk, so the system will be changed to be storage-incentive from computing-incentive., that would change the way of crypto mining, and also Spock introduced the Solidity smart contract in such blockchain system, which make the developers easily migrated their dapps from Ethereum to Spock.
Q24:- How Proof of Capacity Consensus works in SPOCK Chain?
Ans:- The core function about PoC in Spock is just like the PoC consensuse implementation in Burst project, which is the first project uses PoC consensus since year 2014. In high level, the PoC consensus is an algorithm which preprocessing the hash calculation by plotting the whole hard disk with hash values, when generating a new block, the node will scan the hard disk and find the most proper "answer" in the disks and submit to the network, the node submitted the most proper answer will get the mining reward.
Q25:- How Spock and other storage platform i.e. Google drive are different and what benefits you have over them?
Ans:- Basically Spock and Google drive is totally different, as Spock today only stores consensus data. I’d like to talk about the overall differences between decentralized storage and centralized storage services.
Traditional centralized storage platforms generally use cloud storage. Most of the data is stored on a few cloud platforms, which leads to data accumulation and serious centralization problems. There are also problems including higher cost, slower transfer rate, and lower data security. The decentralized storage application platform encrypts and distributes data through a distributed network, meaning that no data other than the data owner can access the data, ensuring security.
And another core feature is the protection of private data, the open decentralized platform can do better, just like the assets of the cryptocurrency, the ownership of the assets represented by the private key, in the decentralized storage platform The private key can represent the disposition and access rights of the data.
Q26:- What do you think is the biggest problem Spock Network will solve which is not solved by other projects yet and why is the problem important to solve?I mean how unique SPOCK Network have?What are the Real world use-cases & utility of SPOK ?
Ans:- 1. I think there are so much projects uses PoC consensus, but all of them are lack of economy, with smart contract feature, Spock will be the first public blockchain support Solidity smart contract and with lower energy cost for running.
2. First of all, the usage of the smart contract will cost SPOK , and the mining policy makes miners need to stake SPOK to mine. and other industry is trying to looking for the adoption of Spock as it's a storage network with smart contract, there is very much possibility we can explore.
Q27:- Will the mining on SPOCK CHAIN Platform Profitablein bear Market? In which form will the output of Mining?
Ans:- The PoC mining is the most anti-bear-marketing mining way I think, you know when BTC comes to 15000$, Bitmain miners S9’s price goes to 4000$, this year, when the BTC prices comes to 3000$, S9’s price is less than 100$. Miners takes all the risk for the price going down, because the manufactory of BTC/BCH miner machines are limited and united. While the miner machines of PoC consensus does not have that problem, because the supplyment of hard disk is very sufficient, and the price is very stable.
Q28:- Why does Spockchain use POC and not POW or POS? Are there advantages of POC compared to POW and POS? There are many projects using POC such as: BHD, BSN, .... Is Spockchain different from these projects?
Ans:- 1. The main issue of PoW is that it’s energy waste and it limits the miners nowadays, people basically cannot mine any PoW coins at home, they have to buy equipments and send them to some place with lower-cost electricity power which makes difficulty to ordinary people. The biggest advantage of PoC is that it save tremendous money on electricity power.
The PoS basically cost nothing to generate new coins, I think it would also be problem for the price, as people get the coins so easy, they may not value it.
2.I have a list about PoC coins (the list is growing..) I do want to share some opinion about all these PoC projects including Spock.
I categorized the projects into two:
PoC consensus only: Burst/BHD/LHD/DISC/Boom/Newbi/Lava
PoC consensus + Smart Contract: Spock/BSN/Galaxy Network/EHD
For the projects in first list, these projects only talks about consensus and coins, but lack of usage and scenarios.
For the second lines, please check out and compare all the projects, none of them have launched the mainnet except SPOCK, while those projects started to mine with ERC-20 tokens.
I think the chanlledge is lack of acknowledge of Proof of Capacity consensus all over the world, the PoC introduce a new way to mine cryptocurrency, currently, Spock has a lot of miners in China, but not much in other places, spreading the consensus takes time. I think code/products shows hoesty and integrity, we have lots of plan to develop the network, while so many projects with similar ideas still runs on ERC-20, with time goes by, people will distinguish that.
Q29:- Currently, what are risks affecting the Spockchain project? In order to develop project in long term and attract investors, which method do you use to manage, minimize the negative impact of risks? I mean that, what are the risks and how do you deal with them?
Ans:- do you mean cheat when mining? First of all, you cannot have fundamental issue on the consensus basis, then if there is some way for smart miners to cheat to gain more rewards, we can update the full node program which can prevent the cheat. I think if that happen, community will support us to update the nodes in the network.
Q30:- How can a cryptocurrency mining algorithm be detected and prevented? What makes them so difficult to detect?
Ans:- According to the stats, 2016-2018, the supply of hard disk is 1.2billion, if we count as average capacity 4T, which is 48,000,000P, while currenlty the largest network with PoC consensus is BHD, which has capacity at about only 1500P.
submitted by Unity111-spock to SPOCK_Chain_Official [link] [comments]

Are New Bitmains’ ASIC Devices Profitable?

Are New Bitmains’ ASIC Devices Profitable?
You might have heard that Bitmain has announced the next generation Antminer ASIC mining devices.These devices (S17+ and T17+) are expected to deliver higher hash rates while keeping relatively comparable energy consumption rates.
Bitmain stays true to itself and regularly releases new hardware on its Antminer line. Usually, their products are the top ones on the market in terms of hash rate, but it’s always just a matter of time until the competition catches up.

https://preview.redd.it/131m5wm3wgu31.png?width=1920&format=png&auto=webp&s=f96ef5ad457b46ec058849117432921c2da4821e
Also, there is another problem with third-parties pre-empting the devices and then reselling them at a much higher price. One can only hope that this time Bitmain manages to deliver a reasonable amount of devices.
This time, Bitmain is releasing two devices: S17+ with a hashrate of 72 TH/s that is consuming around 2,920 watts of power and an ‘economy class’ T17+ with 64 TH/s and 3,200 watts of power consumption.

What’s the Profit?

So how profitable it is to run one of these devices considering the current state of market? According to Blockonomi’s calculations, S17+ is profitable to operate, but if you’re hoping for big wins, that’s not going to happen. Assuming an electricity price of $0.10 per kilowatt and running your device for 24/7 for an entire year (no change in difficulty considered) you can expect to earn about half a bitcoin. However at the end of the day, it all comes down to electricity costs.
As for T17+, you could get about 0.45156798 BTC, at the cost of $2,8 in electricity fees.

Is it worth it?

Like everything in the crypto space, this is very hard to predict.
Once these devices hit the market, they will set the hash rate standard, which means increasing network difficulty and lowering the efficiency of the hardware.
Moreover, the bitcoin prices have been bouncing around the $7,500 to $8,000 mark for a while, and if your goal is to sell all of the bitcoin you’ve mined right away, you would probably be able just to cover the equipment and electricity cost after one year but nothing more.
If you are determined that ASIC mining is your thing, it can be a good idea to buy one of these devices but avoid purchasing it from the resellers.

The Bottom Line

No matter which equipment you decide to go with, you can use CoinFly to increase your profits.
We offer you an opportunity to mine the most profitable currency and optimize the mining profit automatically: once the situation on the market changes, the system will just switch to mining the most profitable coin, thus, you will have the possibility to tune your hardware online to achieve optimal performance.
Sign up for our beta-testing and check out the benefits of mining with CoinFly!
submitted by coinfly to CoinFly [link] [comments]

Current Bitcoin Carbon Emissions. The numbers. Can we discuss please?

I received a PM from a redditor about a old comment. His PM reads -
So back 10 months ago I posted this comment and you responded with the most reasoned response about the entire Bitcoin network emitting less carbon than a single 747. It made me feel much better about Bitcoin. It also confused me this past few weeks with people posting stories stating that Bitcoin will soon use nearly 0.1% of the world's energy and already consumes more power than every single solar panel in the entire world produces. Those two don't really square, so I looked back and the article you reference was from 2014. I'm curious if you've reevaluated your stance on bitcoin or perhaps have some insight that the current hysteria is just overblown?
Since I've spent the time doing some napkin math (I could be horribly wrong on this, someone please correct me!), I thought I should make this post public for everone to evaulate my maths and my reasoning.
First, I would just redirect to AA's great clip on the subject -
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fExR-IKozOY
As for re-evaluating my position, yes, constantly. Im going to do this really quickly, so unsure of accuracy, but should give a rough ball park.
http://www.yousustain.com/footprint/howmuchco2?co2=761+tons
Says its about 761 tons for a 747 to fly 24 hrs.
https://www.thebalance.com/how-much-power-does-the-bitcoin-network-use-391280
Claims 1 watt per 1 second gigahash. Comes out to 343 mW per second. Thats 1234800 mW per hour, which equals 29635200 mWh for 24 hrs. The formula used to calculate megawatt-hours is Megawatt hours (MWh) = Megawatts (MW) x Hours (h). In this case, I've used 24 hours since we are comparing to 24 hours of a 747 flying, so 24 MWh. So currently btc mining has a rate of 1,234,800 per MWh.
Putting 29635200000 (previous mWh * 1000 for kWh) into this government calculator will give you caron comparisons. That calculator claims an equivilent of 2,481,717,074 gallons of gas consumed. Yes, thats nearly 2.5 billion.
To make this comparison more comprehensible....
https://www.eia.gov/tools/faqs/faq.php?id=23&t=10
In 2017, about 143.85 billion gallons (or about 3.40 billion barrels1) of finished motor gasoline were consumed2 in the United States, a daily average of about 391.40 million gallons (or about 9.32 million barrels per day).
This would be equivilent of 6.33 days of gasoline usage in the USA for a single day of mining.
So go go back to our airplane analogy, the carbon calculator says that many mW = 22,055,020 metric tons of carbon emitted.
I do recall looking into the airplane thing back when we were discussing it, and I remember looking at the numbers. Frankly, its impossible to believe those were accurate and im sorry. I should have double checked everything.
According to - https://charts.bitcoin.com/chart/hash-rate
We had around "5EHash" in august of 2017, when that comment was made. We are now at 31EHash, over a 6x fold since that comment was made.
Now that we have the numbers out of the way, some things to consider...
These estimates are based upon the USA's carbon calculators which measures average carbon output based on the varying technologies in the US. According to the wiki the US only is around 12% (in 2016) for renewable energy.
So in general, our energy is pretty damn dirty and we put out a lot more carbon than we sequester.
In that AA video, he talks about the geolocation arbitrage used by miners. This makes a lot of sense. If you are going to invest 50-500 million into a mining operation, are you going to do it in a area where it costs 12 cents per hour (US average), or where it costs 3-4 cents per kwH? See -
https://www.forbes.com/sites/dominicdudley/2018/01/13/renewable-energy-cost-effective-fossil-fuels-2020/#1c69d08e4ff2
Obviously you are going to massively reduce your operational cost as that is what will lead your investment to become profitable.
Fortunately for us, and the world, many of these arbitrage opportunities are in hydroelectric and geothermal energy areas. These plants are designed to be future proofed, so enterprising mining congolmerates will move to areas where they can secure very cheap energy prices. When these companies are currently using 5-15 GwH for their cities, with 50 GwH capacity, they will happily sell their extra capacity to the mining operation since that is a very favorable economic incentive to all parties.
Another factor to consider is that for every single new ASIC design, they are becoming more energy efficient. So even though the hashrate is jumping, I would say the overall energy used by the network will plateau, if it has not already done so. With GMO and other giants like Samsung entering the mining design fray, this will only speed up energy efficiency.
None of this is intended to be a sidestepping of the facts - Clearly the bitcoin network uses a lot of energy. And when you have less regulated countries (china, India), it presents opportunities for locals to setup mining operations inside their locality, which then uses dirty energy, increasing carbon outputs.
The amount of carbon emissions per day (22,055,020 metric tons) that is above is obviously not very accurate when you account for these arbitrage opportunties. We know for a fact many of the largest mining colo's are situated near hydroelectric and Geothermal energy plants, which means that they are practically zero carbon emissions. Since we do not know the location of every miner, due to the decentralized unregulated nature of bitcoin, it is impossible to calculate how much of a reduction of tons of carbon we will get for that calculation.
But even if we are generous, and say 50% of all mining is done on renewables, that still leaves 11 million tons of carbon per day, a pretty staggering amount.
There is also much to hope for with scientists claiming we can be 100% renewable energy across the entire planet. Such as scientists setting to prove through empiracle data that it is feasible to convert the entire planet to 100% renewables. Though it is probably not realistic that this will happen quickly, or even at all. To give perspective, CFC's have been banned for decades and thought not in use for over a decade, yet recent data has shown levels are increasing. There will always be industry willing to destroy the world in the future for short term profit now.
We should also weigh the costs and benefits of this massive network. If bitcoin becomes adopted across the world as a currency, which if you look at places like Japan, it clearly is, then this will enable literal billions of people who are currently unbanked to join into the global financial ecosystem.
The personal financial soverignty that bitcoin brings is of incalcuable value. Whether the carbon emissions are worth these trade offs is a philosophical question that probably does not have an right or wrong answer.
Then we must also evaluate the carbon impact that the bitcoin network would have if cryptocurrencies were to replace traditional financial networks. There are some good analysis on the carbon footprint of banks, and bitcoin mining, coindesk has done several articles, see -
https://www.coindesk.com/microscope-conclusions-costs-bitcoin/
&
https://www.coindesk.com/microscope-true-costs-banking/
If we are properly to examine the impact that cryptocurrency carbon emissions have on society, then we should also examine the reduction of carbon that cryptocurrency networks will have upon the banking sector.
This site Claims AC & Heating results in 47.7 % of the entire USA's electricity usage. This example is just to present a understanding of how much energy these systems use.
How many Banks are there around the world that have their AC on 24/7? I can imagine just that number alone would lead to a staggering level of CO2 emissions. The coindesk article claims 591k bank branches around the world. The above aritcle claims 3.5k watts for a single central air unit. I had a family member that used to run a A/C business and I've been on top of many businesses. A bank will likely have several of those units to keep the place cool, I would estimate between 2-10 depending upon size.
In more good news, Bank branches are declining, and cryptocurrencies will only accelerate this. Lets hope that bitcoin is the amazon of retail brick and mortor closures.
In conclusion, there is a valid and rational concern as to the amount of power that the bitcoin network brings. And instead of being dismissive, we should recognize the incredible rate at which the bitcoin network is growing on an annual basis. From 4.3EHash to 31EHash over the last year, that is about a 8x fold increase.
Since we can assume that the majority of hashpower is coming online in the last year is likely newer models, these units should be at the current efficiencies. The estimates above should be roughly accurate based on this information.
This information will only be used by politicians and media congolmerates to spin a very bad negative impression of the bitcoin network. And you know what? Maybe they are right. Maybe bitcoin is growing into a massive CO2 producing beast that outweighs the benefits that it brings to society.
But how can we reach a consensus on this issue unless we, the hardcore bitcoiners and techophiles, bring the numbers into sunlight and discuss?
submitted by Cryptolution to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Mining Power Hits New High as Half a Million New ASICs Go Online

Bitcoin Mining Power Hits New High as Half a Million New ASICs Go Online


News by Coindesk: Wolfie Zhao
The computing power dedicated to mining bitcoin has hit yet another new high, suggesting that more than 600,000 powerful new machines may have come online in the last three months.
According to data from crypto mining pool BTC.com, bitcoin’s two-week average hash rate has crossed another major threshold, reaching 85 exahashes per second (EH/s) around 19:00 UTC last Friday. Meanwhile, mining difficulty also adjusted to a new record of nearly 12 trillion.
Notably, both figures have jumped 60 percent since June 14, the data shows.
Bitcoin’s mining difficulty — a measure of how hard it is to create a block of transactions — adjusts after 2,016 blocks, or roughly every two weeks. This is to ensure the time to produce a block remains around 10 minutes, even as the amount of hashing power, deployed by machines around the globe competing to win freshly minted bitcoins, fluctuates.
Several new models of application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) miners hit the market over the summer, with an average hashing power around 55 tera hashes per second (TH/s).
Assuming all of the 35 EH/s of new hashing power added since mid-June came from these top-of-the-line models, a back-of-the-envelope calculation suggests that more than half a million such machines have connected to the bitcoin network. (1 EH/s =1 million TH/s)

Billion-dollar business?

These powerful ASIC miners, made by major manufacturers such as Bitmain, Canaan, InnoSilicon and MicroBT, are priced from $1,500 to $2,500 each. So if more than half a million of them were delivered, as estimated above, the leading miner makers could have made $1 billion in revenue over the past three months.
Bitcoin’s spiking hash rate and difficulty are in line with the soaring price since earlier this year, which led to increasing demand for mining equipment that has significantly outstripped supply. It’s also in part thanks to the rainy summer season in southwestern China which resulted in cheap, abundant hydroelectric power.
Further, there has also been a growing interest in Russia’s Eastern Siberia region, where the Brastsk hydropower station built in the Cold War era has been utilized to power mining farms that are estimated to account for almost 10 percent of the total computing power on the bitcoin network.
Miners in China estimated earlier this year that bitcoin’s average hash rate in the summer would break the level of 70 EH/s, which happened in August.
As such, major miner manufacturers have already sold out equipment that is due for shipment until the end of the year with customers placing pre-orders three months in advance.
TokenInsight, a startup that focuses on analysis of crypto trading and mining activities, said in a report published Friday that additional supplies of miners are expected to hit the market in the coming months.
“Following the drastic increase in bitcoin’s price, the bitcoin mining market saw significant inflation in Q2 2019. Most of the miners from various manufacturers were in serious shortage and pre-orders submitted in Q2 and Q3 are to be delivered by the end of the year,” the report states.
Therefore, the firm estimates mining difficulty will maintain its growth momentum to reach 15 trillion by the end of the year — with bitcoin’s average total hashing power crossing the threshold of 100 EH/s for the first time in its history.
Bitcoin mining facility image courtesy of Bcause
submitted by GTE_IO to u/GTE_IO [link] [comments]

News everyone

This is a big announcement for Electroneum. See bottom of this article for the full details of the blockchain tech update.
Some of our community have been worried about our blockchain tech, especially regarding ASIC miners and blockchain flooding. We will cover these below along with the announcement of some exciting major changes to the way our blockchain runs.
ETN Blockchain Update May 30th Monero (who we based our blockchain code on) perform an update approximately every 6 months, and this is a great practice, as it allows them to keep their technology moving forward and introduce new features. We will be following this model and our first major update (also known as a fork) is scheduled to take place at block 307500 which is approximately 10.30am BST on May 30th.
Don’t panic! – Forking explained It’s important for everyone to understand that whilst this is known as a fork, it is very different to Bitcoin forking to bitcoin cash or bitcoin gold. The fork will not result in two currencies, as all the exchanges and pools will update their software in advance of the update block and Electroneum will continue with an updated blockchain.
Time to test and implement The end of May gives our community plenty of time to test and comment on the code changes that we will post on GitHub by Friday 5th of May. It also gives plenty of time for every node owner to update their Electroneum nodes, ready for the update block.
Electroneum divergence from Monero We’ve always planned to move the Electroneum blockchain further towards reaching our goals, which in turn will move us away from Monero’s goals. We chose Monero because they’d written an awesome dynamic blocksize algorithm, but they also have some features that are not critical to Electroneum’s future. In this Electroneum update we’ve started to diverge away from some core Monero functionality. As we move towards a lean, fast blockchain to handle vast numbers of micropayments we need to lose some of the overhead that comes with the privacy of Monero. We are still going to be far more private than Bitcoin or Ethereum (for instance you won’t be able to look at someone else’s wallet balance), but by decreasing some of the privacy features we can fit significantly more transactions into a block, which is critical for our next stage of growth as our corporate partners start to bring on user numbers, and our vendor program starts delivering instant cryptocurrency acceptance into online and physical shops and stores. In short Monero is the best privacy coin in the world, where we need to be the best micropayment system in the world.
ETN Blockchain Tech Update (Details) Anti- ASIC. An ASIC is a computer chip that has been made for a specific task. In this instance the task is to mine the CryptoNight algorithm that Electroneum uses. We are implementing Anti-ASIC code to ensure we have maximum resistance to any network attack that could occur in the future. Limiting mining to GPU’s reduces the chances of a single entity possessing enough hashing power to attempt a 51% network attack. It’s important to note that there is no proof of a 51% network attack having taken place on the Electroneum blockchain. Transfer Fee Increase. There have been a lot of comments about our transfer fee being too low. It is important to our project that the fee remains low, because we are going to be focusing on instant payments and instant micropayments in the real world, and we need fees that are lower than typical debit / credit card fees. However, we have suffered from blockchain flooding so are taking steps to ensure we are resistant to this in the future. We have therefore decided to increase our base fee to 0.1 ETN. This is still a fraction of the cost of transfer of other cryptocurrencies, but still increases the difficulty of flooding by an order of magnitude. Combined with our other updates (below) this will give us more effective resistance to blockchain flooding. Increase block size before penalty. We have been enormously successful and seen some periods with huge amounts of legitimate blockchain transaction traffic. This, combined with blockchain flooding, has meant periods of blockchain delays. By increasing the block size before penalty, miners will be able to scale the blocks faster and get more transactions into a block. This will handle regular transactions and flood transactions, making delays less likely. Combined with the Fee increase this is a significant resistance enhancement to flooding. Disabling of RingCT & Mixin. RingCT was introduced by Monero whose main focus is privacy. Our main focus is bulk transactions for a mass audience, and thus we are disabling some of the privacy features of the blockchain. Disabling some privacy features means we can fit significantly more transactions into each block than with them enabled. This means less wait to get a transaction into a block and a leaner blockchain size. Wallets are still private as we will continue to use a new stealth wallet address for every blockchain transaction so there is still significantly more privacy than with Bitcoin or Ethereum, but considerably less privacy than with a privacy focused coin like Monero. Mempool life to 3 days. During high transactional volumes it is feasible that a transaction can remain in the mempool for 24 hours and reach the current limit. This would mean the transaction is returned to the sender, but that could take up to 7 days. By increasing the mempool life to 3 days (and in conjunction with some of the additional changes) we are ensuring a significant reduction in the possibility of these returned transactions. 2 minute blocks. Blocks are currently mined every minute. We are moving to two minute blocks which will significantly decrease the chance of an orphan block being created. Orphan blocks might contain transactions which will eventually (7 days) be returned or added to another block. Increasing the block time to 2 minutes has ramifications on the block reward which will be modified (see below). Block Reward. We are doubling the block reward to ensure daily ETN block reward remains the same, despite the fact that we are releasing blocks at half the current speed. This means there will be no discernable effect to miners or pools. Reduce difficulty window. Block difficulty window is being reduced. The block difficulty is calculated by looking at the last X blocks. It has come to our attention that by hitting the ETN blockchain with large powered rented hashing power gives the miner an advantage over a short period of time (until the difficulty algorithm catches up with the new hashing rate). We are reducing the difficulty window to reduce the benefit these periodic miners have and to discourage this practice, making the mining process fairer. This should have little or no effect on the difficulty number itself except during the exceptional circumstances described. Thanks for taking the time to read this update! If you are running an Electroneum node remember to update before May 30th. If you are using a pool, ensure you let their telegram or other social channel know that this update is critical and must be applied before May 30th, in advance of block 307500.
Have a great day everyone,
submitted by chindyagung to Electroneum [link] [comments]

What's the difference between Litcoin and Bitcoin?

In 2009, Satoshi Nakamoto launched bitcoin as the world’s first cryptocurrency. The code is open source, which means it can be modified by anyone and freely used for other projects. Many cryptocurrencies have launched with modified versions of this code, with varying levels of success.
Litecoin was announced in 2011 with the goal of being the ‘silver’ to bitcoin’s ‘gold’. At the time of writing, Litecoin has the highest market cap of any mined cryptocurrency, after bitcoin.
Here’s our guide to show you the crucial difference between bitcoin and litecoin.
Mining differences
Just like bitcoin, litecoin is a crytocurrency that is generated by mining. Litecoin was created in October 2011 by former Google engineer Charles Lee. The motivation behind its creation was to improve upon bitcoin. The key difference for end-users being the 2.5 minute time to generate a block, as opposed to bitcoin’s 10 minutes. Charles Lee now works for Coinbase, one of the most popular online bitcoin wallets.
ASIC Mining
For miners and enthusiasts though, litecoin holds a much more important difference to bitcoin, and that is its different proof of work algorithm. Bitcoin uses the SHA-256 hashing algorithm, which involves calculations that can be greatly accelerated in parallel processing. It is this characteristic that has given rise to the intense race in ASIC technology, and has caused an exponential increase in bitcoin’s difficulty level.
Litecoin, however, uses the scrypt algorithm – originally named as s-crypt, but pronounced as ‘script’. This algorithm incorporates the SHA-256 algorithm, but its calculations are much more serialised than those of SHA-256 in bitcoin. Scrypt favours large amounts of high-speed RAM, rather than raw processing power alone. As a result, scrypt is known as a ‘memory hard problem‘.
The consequences of using scrypt mean that there has not been as much of an ‘arms race’ in litecoin (and other scrypt currencies), because there is (so far) no ASIC technology available for this algorithm. However, this is soon to change, thanks to companies like Alpha Technologies, which is now taking preorders.
GPU mining
To highlight the difference in hashing power, at the time of writing, the total hashing rate of the bitcoin network is over 20,000 Terra Hashes per second, while litecoin is just 95,642 Mega Hashes per second.
For the time being, ‘state of the art’ litecoin mining rigs come in the form of custom PCs fitted with multiple graphics cards (ie: GPUs). These devices can handle the calculations needed for scrypt and have access to blisteringly fast memory built into their own circuit boards.
There was a time when people could use GPU mining for bitcoin, but ASICs have made this method not worth the effort.
If you are a developer, cryptocurrency investor, or just a curious person and want to invest some time to learn about cryptocurrency visit BTCNEWZ
Transaction differences
The main difference is that litecoin can confirm transactions must faster than bitcoin. The implications of that are as follows:
Transaction speed (or faster block time) and confirmation speed are often touted as moot points by many involved in bitcoin, as most merchants would allow zero-confirmation transactions for most purchases. It is necessary to bear in mind that a transaction is instant, it is just confirmed by the network as it propagates.
submitted by alifkhalil469 to BtcNewz [link] [comments]

Blockchain Dictionary for Newbies

Blockchain Glossary: From A-Z
51% Attack
When more than half of the computing power of a cryptocurrency network is controlled by a single entity or group, this entity or group may issue conflicting transactions to harm the network, should they have the malicious intent to do so.
Address
Cryptocurrency addresses are used to send or receive transactions on the network. An address usually presents itself as a string of alphanumeric characters.
ASIC
Short form for ‘Application Specific Integrated Circuit’. Often compared to GPUs, ASICs are specially made for mining and may offer significant power savings.
Bitcoin
Bitcoin is the first decentralised, open source cryptocurrency that runs on a global peer to peer network, without the need for middlemen and a centralised issuer.
Block
Blocks are packages of data that carry permanently recorded data on the blockchain network.
Blockchain
A blockchain is a shared ledger where transactions are permanently recorded by appending blocks. The blockchain serves as a historical record of all transactions that ever occurred, from the genesis block to the latest block, hence the name blockchain.
Block Explorer
Block explorer is an online tool to view all transactions, past and current, on the blockchain. They provide useful information such as network hash rate and transaction growth.
Block Height
The number of blocks connected on the blockchain.
Block Reward
A form of incentive for the miner who successfully calculated the hash in a block during mining. Verification of transactions on the blockchain generates new coins in the process, and the miner is rewarded a portion of those.
Central Ledger
A ledger maintained by a central agency.
Confirmation
The successful act of hashing a transaction and adding it to the blockchain.
Consensus
Consensus is achieved when all participants of the network agree on the validity of the transactions, ensuring that the ledgers are exact copies of each other.
Cryptocurrency
Also known as tokens, cryptocurrencies are representations of digital assets.
Cryptographic Hash Function
Cryptographic hashes produce a fixed-size and unique hash value from variable-size transaction input. The SHA-256 computational algorithm is an example of a cryptographic hash.
Dapp
A decentralised application (Dapp) is an application that is open source, operates autonomously, has its data stored on a blockchain, incentivised in the form of cryptographic tokens and operates on a protocol that shows proof of value.
DAO
Decentralised Autonomous Organizations can be thought of as corporations that run without any human intervention and surrender all forms of control to an incorruptible set of business rules.
Distributed Ledger
Distributed ledgers are ledgers in which data is stored across a network of decentralized nodes. A distributed ledger does not have to have its own currency and may be permissioned and private.
Distributed Network
A type of network where processing power and data are spread over the nodes rather than having a centralised data centre.
Difficulty
This refers to how easily a data block of transaction information can be mined successfully.
Digital Signature
A digital code generated by public key encryption that is attached to an electronically transmitted document to verify its contents and the sender’s identity.
Double Spending
Double spending occurs when a sum of money is spent more than once.
Ethereum
Ethereum is a blockchain-based decentralised platform for apps that run smart contracts, and is aimed at solving issues associated with censorship, fraud and third party interference.
EVM
The Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) is a Turing complete virtual machine that allows anyone to execute arbitrary EVM Byte Code. Every Ethereum node runs on the EVM to maintain consensus across the blockchain.
Fork
Forks create an alternate version of the blockchain, leaving two blockchains to run simultaneously on different parts of the network.
Genesis Block
The first or first few blocks of a blockchain.
Hard Fork
A type of fork that renders previously invalid transactions valid, and vice versa. This type of fork requires all nodes and users to upgrade to the latest version of the protocol software.
Hash
The act of performing a hash function on the output data. This is used for confirming coin transactions.
Hash Rate
Measurement of performance for the mining rig is expressed in hashes per second.
Hybrid PoS/PoW
A hybrid PoS/PoW allows for both Proof of Stake and Proof of Work as consensus distribution algorithms on the network. In this method, a balance between miners and voters (holders) may be achieved, creating a system of community-based governance by both insiders (holders) and outsiders (miners).
Mining
Mining is the act of validating blockchain transactions. The necessity of validation warrants an incentive for the miners, usually in the form of coins. In this cryptocurrency boom, mining can be a lucrative business when done properly. By choosing the most efficient and suitable hardware and mining target, mining can produce a stable form of passive income.
Multi-Signature
Multi-signature addresses provide an added layer of security by requiring more than one key to authorize a transaction.
Node
A copy of the ledger operated by a participant of the blockchain network.
Oracles
Oracles work as a bridge between the real world and the blockchain by providing data to the smart contracts.
Peer to Peer
Peer to Peer (P2P) refers to the decentralized interactions between two parties or more in a highly-interconnected network. Participants of a P2P network deal directly with each other through a single mediation point.
Public Address
A public address is the cryptographic hash of a public key. They act as email addresses that can be published anywhere, unlike private keys.
Private Key
A private key is a string of data that allows you to access the tokens in a specific wallet. They act as passwords that are kept hidden from anyone but the owner of the address.
Proof of Stake
A consensus distribution algorithm that rewards earnings based on the number of coins you own or hold. The more you invest in the coin, the more you gain by mining with this protocol.
Proof of Work
A consensus distribution algorithm that requires an active role in mining data blocks, often consuming resources, such as electricity. The more ‘work’ you do or the more computational power you provide, the more coins you are rewarded with.
Scrypt
Scrypt is a type of cryptographic algorithm and is used by Litecoin. Compared to SHA256, this is quicker as it does not use up as much processing time.
SHA-256
SHA-256 is a cryptographic algorithm used by cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin. However, it uses a lot of computing power and processing time, forcing miners to form mining pools to capture gains.
Smart Contracts
Smart contracts encode business rules in a programmable language onto the blockchain and are enforced by the participants of the network.
Soft Fork
A soft fork differs from a hard fork in that only previously valid transactions are made invalid. Since old nodes recognize the new blocks as valid, a soft fork is essentially backward-compatible. This type of fork requires most miners upgrading in order to enforce, while a hard fork requires all nodes to agree on the new version.
Solidity
Solidity is Ethereum’s programming language for developing smart contracts.
Testnet
A test blockchain used by developers to prevent expending assets on the main chain.
Transaction Block
A collection of transactions gathered into a block that can then be hashed and added to the blockchain.
Transaction Fee
All cryptocurrency transactions involve a small transaction fee. These transaction fees add up to account for the block reward that a miner receives when he successfully processes a block.
Turing Complete
Turing complete refers to the ability of a machine to perform calculations that any other programmable computer is capable of. An example of this is the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM).
Wallet
A file that houses private keys. It usually contains a software client which allows access to view and create transactions on a specific blockchain that the wallet is designed for.
submitted by Tokenberry to NewbieZone [link] [comments]

Decred Journal – August 2018

Note: you can read this on GitHub (link), Medium (link) or old Reddit (link) to see all the links.

Development

dcrd: Version 1.3.0 RC1 (Release Candidate 1) is out! The main features of this release are significant performance improvements, including some that benefit SPV clients. Full release notes and downloads are on GitHub.
The default minimum transaction fee rate was reduced from 0.001 to 0.0001 DCkB. Do not try to send such small fee transactions just yet, until the majority of the network upgrades.
Release process was changed to use release branches and bump version on the master branch at the beginning of a release cycle. Discussed in this chat.
The codebase is ready for the new Go 1.11 version. Migration to vgo module system is complete and the 1.4.0 release will be built using modules. The list of versioned modules and a hierarchy diagram are available here.
The testnet was reset and bumped to version 3.
Comments are welcome for the proposal to implement smart fee estimation, which is important for Lightning Network.
@matheusd recorded a code review video for new Decred developers that explains how tickets are selected for voting.
dcrwallet: Version 1.3.0 RC1 features new SPV sync mode, new ticket buyer, new APIs for Decrediton and a host of bug fixes. On the dev side, dcrwallet also migrated to the new module system.
Decrediton: Version 1.3.0 RC1 adds the new SPV sync mode that syncs roughly 5x faster. The feature is off by default while it receives more testing from experienced users. Other notable changes include a design polish and experimental Politeia integration.
Politeia: Proposal editing is being developed and has a short demo. This will allow proposal owners to edit their proposal in response to community feedback before voting begins. The challenges associated with this feature relate to updating censorship tokens and maintaining a clear history of which version comments were made on. @fernandoabolafio produced this architecture diagram which may be of interest to developers.
@degeri joined to perform security testing of Politeia and found several issues.
dcrdata: mainnet explorer upgraded to v2.1 with several new features. For users: credit/debit tx filter on address page, showing miner fees on coinbase transaction page, estimate yearly ticket rewards on main page, cool new hamburger menu and keyboard navigation. For developers: new chain parameters page, experimental Insight API support, endpoints for coin supply and block rewards, testnet3 support. Lots of minor API changes and frontend tweaks, many bug fixes and robustness improvements.
The upcoming v3.0 entered beta and is deployed on beta.dcrdata.org. Check out the new charts page. Feedback and bug reports are appreciated. Finally, the development version v3.1.0-pre is on alpha.dcrdata.org.
Android: updated to be compatible with the latest SPV code and is syncing, several performance issues are worked on. Details were posted in chat. Alpha testing has started, to participate please join #dev and ask for the APK.
iOS: backend is mostly complete, as well as the front end. Support for devices with smaller screens was improved. What works now: creating and recovering wallets, listing of transactions, receiving DCR, displaying and scanning QR codes, browsing account information, SPV connection to peers, downloading headers. Some bugs need fixing before making testable builds.
Ticket splitting: v0.6.0 beta released with improved fee calculation and multiple bug fixes.
docs: introduced new Governance section that grouped some old articles as well as the new Politeia page.
@Richard-Red created a concept repository sandbox with policy documents, to illustrate the kind of policies that could be approved and amended by Politeia proposals.
decred.org: 8 contributors added and 4 removed, including 2 advisors (discussion here).
decredmarketcap.com is a brand new website that shows the most accurate DCR market data. Clean design, mobile friendly, no javascript required.
Dev activity stats for August: 239 active PRs, 219 commits, 25k added and 11k deleted lines spread across 8 repositories. Contributions came from 2-10 developers per repository. (chart)

Network

Hashrate: went from 54 to 76 PH/s, the low was 50 and the new all-time high is 100 PH/s. BeePool share rose to ~50% while F2Pool shrank to 30%, followed by coinmine.pl at 5% and Luxor at 3%.
Staking: 30-day average ticket price is 95.6 DCR (+3.0) as of Sep 3. During the month, ticket price fluctuated between a low of 92.2 and high of 100.5 DCR. Locked DCR represented between 3.8 and 3.9 million or 46.3-46.9% of the supply.
Nodes: there are 217 public listening and 281 normal nodes per dcred.eu. Version distribution: 2% at v1.4.0(pre) (dev builds), 5% on v1.3.0 (RC1), 62% on v1.2.0 (-5%), 22% on v1.1.2 (-2%), 6% on v1.1.0 (-1%). Almost 69% of nodes are v.1.2.0 and higher and support client filters. Data snapshot of Aug 31.

ASICs

Obelisk posted 3 email updates in August. DCR1 units are reportedly shipping with 1 TH/s hashrate and will be upgraded with firmware to 1.5 TH/s. Batch 1 customers will receive compensation for missed shipment dates, but only after Batch 5 ships. Batch 2-5 customers will be receiving the updated slim design.
Innosilicon announced the new D9+ DecredMaster: 2.8 TH/s at 1,230 W priced $1,499. Specified shipping date was Aug 10-15.
FFMiner DS19 claims 3.1 TH/s for Blake256R14 at 680 W and simultaneously 1.55 TH/s for Blake2B at 410 W, the price is $1,299. Shipping Aug 20-25.
Another newly noticed miner offer is this unit that does 46 TH/s at 2,150 W at the price of $4,720. It is shipping Nov 2018 and the stats look very close to Pangolin Whatsminer DCR (which has now a page on asicminervalue).

Integrations

www.d1pool.com joined the list of stakepools for a total of 16.
Australian CoinTree added DCR trading. The platform supports fiat, there are some limitations during the upgrade to a new system but also no fees in the "Early access mode". On a related note, CoinTree is working on a feature to pay household bills with cryptocurrencies it supports.
Three new OTC desks were added to exchanges page at decred.org.
Two mobile wallets integrated Decred:
Reminder: do your best to understand the security and privacy model before using any wallet software. Points to consider: who controls the seed, does the wallet talk to the nodes directly or via middlemen, is it open source or not?

Adoption

Merchants:

Marketing

Targeted advertising report for August was posted by @timhebel. Facebook appeal is pending, some Google and Twitter campaigns were paused and some updated. Read more here.
Contribution to the @decredproject Twitter account has evolved over the past few months. A #twitter_ops channel is being used on Matrix to collaboratively draft and execute project account tweets (including retweets). Anyone with an interest in contributing to the Twitter account can ask for an invitation to the channel and can start contributing content and ideas there for evaluation by the Twitter group. As a result, no minority or unilateral veto over tweets is possible. (from GitHub)

Events

Attended:
For those willing to help with the events:
BAB: Hey all, we are gearing up for conference season. I have a list of places we hope to attend but need to know who besides @joshuam and @Haon are willing to do public speaking, willing to work booths, or help out at them? You will need to be well versed on not just what is Decred, but the history of Decred etc... DM me if you are interested. (#event_planning)
The Decred project is looking for ambassadors. If you are looking for a fun cryptocurrency to get involved in send me a DM or come talk to me on Decred slack. (@marco_peereboom, longer version here)

Media

Decred Assembly episode 21 is available. @jy-p and lead dcrwallet developer @jrick discussed SPV from Satoshi's whitepaper, how it can be improved upon and what's coming in Decred.
Decred Assembly episodes 1-21 are available in audio only format here.
New instructional articles on stakey.club: Decrediton setup, Deleting the wallet, Installing Go, Installing dcrd, dcrd as a Linux service. Available in both English and Portuguese.
Decred scored #32 in the August issue of Chinese CCID ratings. The evaluation model was explained in this interview.
Satis Group rated Decred highly in their cryptoasset valuation research report (PDF). This was featured by several large media outlets, but some did not link to or omitted Decred entirely, citing low market cap.
Featured articles:
Articles:
Videos:

Community Discussions

Community stats:
Comm systems news:
After another debate about chat systems more people began testing and using Matrix, leading to some gardening on that platform:
Highlights:
Reddit: substantive discussion about Decred cons; ecosystem fund; a thread about voter engagement, Politeia UX and trolling; idea of a social media system for Decred by @michae2xl; how profitable is the Obelisk DCR1.
Chats: cross-chain trading via LN; plans for contractor management system, lower-level decision making and contractor privacy vs transparency for stakeholders; measuring dev activity; what if the network stalls, multiple implementations of Decred for more resilience, long term vision behind those extensive tests and accurate comments in the codebase; ideas for process for policy documents, hosting them in Pi and approving with ticket voting; about SPV wallet disk size, how compact filters work; odds of a wallet fetching a wrong block in SPV; new module system in Go; security of allowing Android app backups; why PoW algo change proposal must be specified in great detail; thoughts about NIPoPoWs and SPV; prerequisites for shipping SPV by default (continued); Decred vs Dash treasury and marketing expenses, spending other people's money; why Decred should not invade a country, DAO and nation states, entangling with nation state is poor resource allocation; how winning tickets are determined and attack vectors; Politeia proposal moderation, contractor clearance, the scale of proposals and decision delegation, initial Politeia vote to approve Politeia itself; chat systems, Matrix/Slack/Discord/RocketChat/Keybase (continued); overview of Korean exchanges; no breaking changes in vgo; why project fund burn rate must keep low; asymptotic behavior of Decred and other ccs, tail emission; count of full nodes and incentives to run them; Politeia proposal translations and multilingual environment.
An unusual event was the chat about double negatives and other oddities in languages in #trading.

Markets

DCR started the month at USD 56 / BTC 0.0073 and had a two week decline. On Aug 14 the whole market took a huge drop and briefly went below USD 200 billion. Bitcoin went below USD 6,000 and top 100 cryptos lost 5-30%. The lowest point coincided with Bitcoin dominance peak at 54.5%. On that day Decred dived -17% and reached the bottom of USD 32 / BTC 0.00537. Since then it went sideways in the USD 35-45 / BTC 0.0054-0.0064 range. Around Aug 24, Huobi showed DCR trading volume above USD 5M and this coincided with a minor recovery.
@ImacallyouJawdy posted some creative analysis based on ticket data.

Relevant External

StopAndDecrypt published an extensive article "ASIC Resistance is Nothing but a Blockchain Buzzword" that is much in line with Decred's stance on ASICs.
The ongoing debates about the possible Sia fork yet again demonstrate the importance of a robust dispute resolution mechanism. Also, we are lucky to have the treasury.
Mark B Lundeberg, who found a vulnerability in atomicswap earlier, published a concept of more private peer-to-peer atomic swaps. (missed in July issue)
Medium took a cautious stance on cryptocurrencies and triggered at least one project to migrate to Ghost (that same project previously migrated away from Slack).
Regulation: Vietnam bans mining equipment imports, China halts crypto events and tightens control of crypto chat groups.
Reddit was hacked by intercepting 2FA codes sent via SMS. The announcement explains the impact. Yet another data breach suggests to think twice before sharing any data with any company and shift to more secure authentication systems.
Intel and x86 dumpsterfire keeps burning brighter. Seek more secure hardware and operating systems for your coins.
Finally, unrelated to Decred but good for a laugh: yetanotherico.com.

About This Issue

This is the 5th issue of Decred Journal. It is mirrored on GitHub, Medium and Reddit. Past issues are available here.
Most information from third parties is relayed directly from source after a minimal sanity check. The authors of Decred Journal have no ability to verify all claims. Please beware of scams and do your own research.
Feedback is appreciated: please comment on Reddit, GitHub or #writers_room on Matrix or Slack.
Contributions are welcome too. Some areas are collecting content, pre-release review or translations to other languages. Check out @Richard-Red's guide how to contribute to Decred using GitHub without writing code.
Credits (Slack names, alphabetical order): bee, Haon, jazzah, Richard-Red and thedecreddigest.
submitted by jet_user to decred [link] [comments]

I'm writing a series about blockchain tech and possible future security risks. This is the third part of the series introducing Quantum resistant blockchains.

Part 1 and part 2 will give you usefull basic blockchain knowledge that is not explained in this part.
Part 1 here
Part 2 here
Quantum resistant blockchains explained.
- How would quantum computers pose a threat to blockchain?
- Expectations in the field of quantum computer development.
- Quantum resistant blockchains
- Why is it easier to change cryptography for centralized systems such as banks and websites than for blockchain?
- Conclusion
The fact that whatever is registered on a blockchain can’t be tampered with is one of the great reasons for the success of blockchain. Looking ahead, awareness is growing in the blockchain ecosystem that quantum computers might cause the need for some changes in the cryptography that is used by blockchains to prevent hackers from forging transactions.
How would quantum computers pose a threat to blockchain?
First, let’s get a misconception out of the way. When talking about the risk quantum computers could pose for blockchain, some people think about the risk of quantum computers out-hashing classical computers. This, however, is not expected to pose a real threat when the time comes.
This paper explains why: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1710.10377.pdf "In this section, we investigate the advantage a quantum computer would have in performing the hashcash PoW used by Bitcoin. Our findings can be summarized as follows: Using Grover search, a quantum computer can perform the hashcash PoW by performing quadratically fewer hashes than is needed by a classical computer. However, the extreme speed of current specialized ASIC hardware for performing the hashcash PoW, coupled with much slower projected gate speeds for current quantum architectures, essentially negates this quadratic speedup, at the current difficulty level, giving quantum computers no advantage. Future improvements to quantum technology allowing gate speeds up to 100GHz could allow quantum computers to solve the PoW about 100 times faster than current technology.
However, such a development is unlikely in the next decade, at which point classical hardware may be much faster, and quantum technology might be so widespread that no single quantum enabled agent could dominate the PoW problem."
The real point of vulnerability is this: attacks on signatures wherein the private key is derived from the public key. That means that if someone has your public key, they can also calculate your private key, which is unthinkable using even today’s most powerful classical computers. So in the days of quantum computers, the public-private keypair will be the weak link. Quantum computers have the potential to perform specific kinds of calculations significantly faster than any normal computer. Besides that, quantum computers can run algorithms that take fewer steps to get to an outcome, taking advantage of quantum phenomena like quantum entanglement and quantum superposition. So quantum computers can run these certain algorithms that could be used to make calculations that can crack cryptography used today. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elliptic-curve_cryptography#Quantum_computing_attacks and https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/598.pdf
Most blockchains use Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) cryptography. Using a quantum computer, Shor's algorithm can be used to break ECDSA. (See for reference: https://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0301141 and pdf: https://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0301141.pdf ) Meaning: they can derive the private key from the public key. So if they got your public key (and a quantum computer), then they got your private key and they can create a transaction and empty your wallet.
RSA has the same vulnerability while RSA will need a stronger quantum computer to be broken than ECDSA.
At this point in time, it is already possible to run Shor’s algorithm on a quantum computer. However, the amount of qubits available right now makes its application limited. But it has been proven to work, we have exited the era of pure theory and entered the era of practical applications:
So far Shor's algorithm has the most potential, but new algorithms might appear which are more efficient. Algorithms are another area of development that makes progress and pushes quantum computer progress forward. A new algorithm called Variational Quantum Factoring is being developed and it looks quite promising. " The advantage of this new approach is that it is much less sensitive to error, does not require massive error correction, and consumes far fewer resources than would be needed with Shor’s algorithm. As such, it may be more amenable for use with the current NISQ (Noisy Intermediate Scale Quantum) computers that will be available in the near and medium term." https://quantumcomputingreport.com/news/zapata-develops-potential-alternative-to-shors-factoring-algorithm-for-nisq-quantum-computers/
It is however still in development, and only works for 18 binary bits at the time of this writing, but it shows new developments that could mean that, rather than a speedup in quantum computing development posing the most imminent threat to RSA and ECDSA, a speedup in the mathematical developments could be even more consequential. More info on VQF here: https://arxiv.org/abs/1808.08927
It all comes down to this: when your public key is visible, which is always necessary to make transactions, you are at some point in the future vulnerable for quantum attacks. (This also goes for BTC, which uses the hash of the public key as an address, but more on that in the following articles.) If you would have keypairs based on post quantum cryptography, you would not have to worry about that since in that case not even a quantum computer could derive your private key from your public key.
The conclusion is that future blockchains should be quantum resistant, using post-quantum cryptography. It’s very important to realize that post quantum cryptography is not just adding some extra characters to standard signature schemes. It’s the mathematical concept that makes it quantum resistant. to become quantm resistant, the algorithm needs to be changed. “The problem with currently popular algorithms is that their security relies on one of three hard mathematical problems: the integer factorization problem, the discrete logarithm problem or the elliptic-curve discrete logarithm problem. All of these problems can be easily solved on a sufficiently powerful quantum computer running Shor's algorithm. Even though current, publicly known, experimental quantum computers lack processing power to break any real cryptographic algorithm, many cryptographers are designing new algorithms to prepare for a time when quantum computing becomes a threat.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-quantum_cryptography
Expectations in the field of quantum computer development.
To give you an idea what the expectations of quantum computer development are in the field (Take note of the fact that the type and error rate of the qubits is not specified in the article. It is not said these will be enough to break ECDSA or RSA, neither is it said these will not be enough. What these articles do show, is that a huge speed up in development is expected.):
When will ECDSA be at risk? Estimates are only estimates, there are several to be found so it's hard to really tell.
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) has made a very thourough report on the development of quantum computing. The report came out in the end of 2018. They brought together a group of scientists of over 70 people from different interconnecting fields in quantum computing who, as a group, have come up with a close to 200 pages report on the development, funding, implications and upcoming challenges for quantum computing development. But, even though this report is one of the most thourough up to date, it doesn't make an estimate on when the risk for ECDSA or RSA would occur. They acknowledge this is quite impossible due to the fact there are a lot of unknowns and due to the fact that they have to base any findings only on publicly available information, obviously excluding any non available advancements from commercial companies and national efforts. So if this group of specialized scientists can’t make an estimate, who can make that assessment? Is there any credible source to make an accurate prediction?
The conclusion at this point of time can only be that we do not know the answer to the big question "when".
Now if we don't have an answer to the question "when", then why act? The answer is simple. If we’re talking about security, most take certainty over uncertainty. To answer the question when the threat materializes, we need to guess. Whether you guess soon, or you guess not for the next three decades, both are guesses. Going for certain means you'd have to plan for the worst, hope for the best. No matter how sceptical you are, having some sort of a plan ready is a responsible thing to do. Obviously not if you're just running a blog about knitting. But for systems that carry a lot of important, private and valuable information, planning starts today. The NAS describes it quite well. What they lack in guessing, they make up in advice. They have a very clear advice:
"Even if a quantum computer that can decrypt current cryptographic ciphers is more than a decade off, the hazard of such a machine is high enough—and the time frame for transitioning to a new security protocol is sufficiently long and uncertain—that prioritization of the development, standardization, and deployment of post-quantum cryptography is critical for minimizing the chance of a potential security and privacy disaster."
Another organization that looks ahead is the National Security Agency (NSA) They have made a threat assessment in 2015. In August 2015, NSA announced that it is planning to transition "in the not too distant future" (statement of 2015) to a new cipher suite that is resistant to quantum attacks. "Unfortunately, the growth of elliptic curve use has bumped up against the fact of continued progress in the research on quantum computing, necessitating a re-evaluation of our cryptographic strategy." NSA advised: "For those partners and vendors that have not yet made the transition to Suite B algorithms, we recommend not making a significant expenditure to do so at this point but instead to prepare for the upcoming quantum resistant algorithm transition.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NSA_Suite_B_Cryptography#cite_note-nsa-suite-b-1
What these organizations both advice is to start taking action. They don't say "implement this type of quantum resistant cryptography now". They don't say when at all. As said before, the "when" question is one that is a hard one to specify. It depends on the system you have, the value of the data, the consequences of postponing a security upgrade. Like I said before: you just run a blog, or a bank or a cryptocurrency? It's an individual risk assesment that's different for every organization and system. Assesments do need to be made now though. What time frame should organisationds think about when changing cryptography? How long would it take to go from the current level of security to fully quantum resistant security? What changes does it require to handle bigger signatures and is it possible to use certain types of cryptography that require to keep state? Do your users need to act, or can al work be done behind the user interface? These are important questions that one should start asking. I will elaborate on these challenges in the next articles.
Besides the unsnswered question on "when", the question on what type of quantum resistant cryptography to use is unanswered too. This also depends on the type of system you use. The NSA and NAS both point to NIST as the authority on developments and standardization of quantum resistant cryptography. NIST is running a competition right now that should end up in one or more standards for quantum resistant cryptography. The NIST competition handles criteria that should filter out a type of quantum resistant cryptography that is feasable for a wide range of systems. This takes time though. There are some new algorithms submitted and assessing the new and the more well known ones must be done thouroughly. They intend to wrap things up around 2022 - 2024. From a blockchain perspective it is important to notice that a specific type of quantum resistant cryptography is excluded from the NIST competition: Stateful Hash-Based Signatures. (LMS and XMSS) This is not because these are no good. In fact they are excelent and XMSS is accepted to be provable quantum resistant. It's due to the fact that implementations will need to be able to securely deal with the requirement to keep state. And this is not a given for most systems.
At this moment NIST intends to approve both LMS and XMSS for a specific group of applications that can deal with the statefull properties. The only loose end at this point is an advice for which applications LMS and XMSS will be adviced and for what applications it is discouraged. These questions will be answered in the beginning of april this year: https://csrc.nist.gov/news/2019/stateful-hbs-request-for-public-comments This means that quite likely LMS and XMSS will be the first type of standardized quantum resistant cryptography ever. To give a small hint: keeping state, is pretty much a naturally added property of blockchain.
Quantum resistant blockchains
“Quantum resistant” is only used to describe networks and cryptography that are secure against any attack by a quantum computer of any size in the sense that there is no algorithm known that makes it possible for a quantum computer to break the applied cryptography and thus that system.
Also, to determine if a project is fully quantum resistant, you would need to take in account not only how a separate element that is implemented in that blockchain is quantum resistant, but also the way it is implemented. As with any type of security check, there should be no backdoors, in which case your blockchain would be just a cardboard box with bulletproof glass windows. Sounds obvious, but since this is kind of new territory, there are still some misconceptions. What is considered safe now, might not be safe in the age of quantum computers. I will address some of these in the following chapters, but first I will elaborate a bit about the special vulnerability of blockchain compared to centralized systems.
Why is it easier to change cryptography for centralized systems such as banks and websites than for blockchain?
Developers of a centralized system can decide from one day to the other that they make changes and update the system without the need for consensus from the nodes. They are in charge, and they can dictate the future of the system. But a decentralized blockchain will need to reach consensus amongst the nodes to update. Meaning that the majority of the nodes will need to upgrade and thus force the blockchain to only have the new signatures to be valid. We can’t have the old signature scheme to be valid besides the new quantum resistant signature scheme. Because that would mean that the blockchain would still allow the use of vulnerable, old public- and private keys and thus the old vulnerable signatures for transactions. So at least the majority of the nodes need to upgrade to make sure that blocks which are constructed using the old rules and thus the old vulnerable signature scheme, are rejected by the network. This will eventually result in a fully upgraded network which only accepts the new post quantum signature scheme in transactions. So, consensus is needed. The most well-known example of how that can be a slow process is Bitcoin’s need to scale. Even though everybody agrees on the need for a certain result, reaching consensus amongst the community on how to get to that result is a slow and political process. Going quantum resistant will be no different, and since it will cause lesser performance due to bigger signatures and it will need hardware upgrades quite likely it will be postponed rather than be done fast and smooth due to lack of consensus. And because there are several quantum resistant signature schemes to choose from, agreement an automatic given. The discussion will be which one to use, and how and when to implement it. The need for consensus is exclusively a problem decentralized systems like blockchain will face.
Another issue for decentralized systems that change their signature scheme, is that users of decentralized blockchains will have to manually transfe migrate their coins/ tokens to a quantum safe address and that way decouple their old private key and activate a new quantum resistant private key that is part of an upgraded quantum resistant network. Users of centralized networks, on the other hand, do not need to do much, since it would be taken care of by their centralized managed system. As you know, for example, if you forget your password of your online bank account, or some website, they can always send you a link, or secret question, or in the worst case they can send you mail by post to your house address and you would be back in business. With the decentralized systems, there is no centralized entity who has your data. It is you who has this data, and only you. So in the centralized system there is a central entity who has access to all the data including all the private accessing data, and therefore this entity can pull all the strings. It can all be done behind your user interface, and you probably wouldn’t notice a thing.
And a third issue will be the lost addresses. Since no one but you has access to your funds, your funds will become inaccessible once you lose your private key. From that point, an address is lost, and the funds on that address can never be moved. So after an upgrade, those funds will never be moved to a quantum resistant address, and thus will always be vulnerable to a quantum hack.
To summarize: banks and websites are centralized systems, they will face challenges, but decentralized systems like blockchain will face some extra challenges that won't apply for centralized systems.
All issues specific for blockchain and not for banks or websites or any other centralized system.
Conclusion
Bitcoin and all currently running traditional cryptocurrencies are not excluded from this problem. In fact, it will be central to ensuring their continued existence over the coming decades. All cryptocurrencies will need to change their signature schemes in the future. When is the big guess here. I want to leave that for another discussion. There are enough certain specifics we can discuss right now on the subject of quantum resistant blockchains and the challenges that existing blockchains will face when they need to transfer. This won’t be an easy transfer. There are some huge challenges to overcome and this will not be done overnight. I will get to this in the next few articles.
Part 1, what makes blockchain reliable?
Part 2, The two most important mathematical concepts in blockchain.
Part 4A, The advantages of quantum resistance from genesis block, A
Part 4B, The advantages of quantum resistance from genesis block, B
Part 5, Why BTC will be vulnerable sooner than expected.
submitted by QRCollector to CryptoTechnology [link] [comments]

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